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Subelement F
Survival Craft Equip & S.A.R.:
Section 39
SART- Activation and Survival Craft Operation
What indication is given to the personnel in a survival craft of the approach of SAR craft?
  • The Satellite EPIRB will change its strobe light pattern to indicate radar interrogation.
  • The SART informs survivors when the SART switches to the "standby" mode.
  • Correct Answer
    The SART may provide a visual or audible indication of interrogation by a 3-CM radar.
  • The AIS SART will alarm to indicate that SAR craft with radars are getting close.

What indication is given to the personnel in a survival craft of the approach of SAR craft?

(C). The SART may provide a visual or audible indication of interrogation by a 3-cm radar.

The SART unit operates on 9 GHz X-band, which is a 3 cm wavelength radar. The range is about 8 nautical miles, or 15 km, for the SART X-band radar. There maybe confirmation of reception of SART propagation, which would indicate a connection with rescue operations for the survival personnel.

Wikipedia article on Search and rescue transponder Also, a great overall info is on Casual navigation site What Is A SART?

See SART info and radar display illustration on eGMDSS.com site The Basis of SART

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Which of the following would aid the detection of a SART's signal?
  • The rescue personnel were monitoring the 3-CM radar and the SART was mounted improperly in the lifeboat.
  • The SART was mounted improperly in the survival craft and rescue personnel were monitoring the 10-CM radar.
  • The rescue personnel were monitoring the 10-CM radar and the SART was properly mounted in the lifeboat.
  • Correct Answer
    The SART was properly mounted in the lifeboat and rescue personnel were monitoring the 3-CM radar.

Which of the following would most likely not prevent a SART's signal from being detected?

(D). The SART was properly mounted in the lifeboat and rescue personnel were monitoring the 3-CM radar.

The higher the mounting, the greater the range of propagation of radio waves scope, and a greater chance of the signals being detected by other ships or rescue operations.

The SART unit operates on 9 GHz X-band, which is a 3 cm wavelength radar. The range is about 8 nautical miles, or 15 km, for the SART X-band radar.

Wikipedia article on Search and rescue transponder Also, a great overall info is on Casual navigation site [What Is A SART?][2]

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How can a SART's detection and effective range be maximized?
  • Correct Answer
    The SART should be held or mounted as high as possible and in a vertical position.
  • The SART should be placed in water immediately so it will begin transmitting.
  • Switch the SART into the "high" power position.
  • If possible, the SART should be mounted horizontally so that its signal matches that of the searching radar signal.

How can a SART's detection and effective range be maximized?

(A). The SART should be held or mounted as high as possible and in a vertical position.

SART, the Search and Rescue Transponder, radiation is horizontal and omnidirectional, and looks like a big doughnut.

As horizontal radiation works in the "line of sight " transmission pattern, then the higher the antenna the longer the range.

A vertical polarization allows the radio waves to bounce off the salt water with much less energy loss than on land, so vertical antenna is preferred.

The beacon frequency belongs to UHF and VHF regions. It can occasionally bounce off the "sporadic E" atmospheric region, if conditions are appropriate, so the effective radiation range is extended.

Elevation will make the SART's signal more visible to the radar station.

For more info, check out SART specifications
Also, great overall info on Casual navigation site on What Is A SART?

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Which statement is NOT true regarding the SART?
  • Responds to interrogations by a vessel's X-Band radar and transmits a signal.
  • Correct Answer
    This is a 6 GHz transponder capable of being received by a vessel's X-band navigational radar system.
  • This is a 9 GHz transponder capable of being received by a vessel's X-band navigational radar system.
  • Transmits a distinctive 12-blip signal for easy recognition.

Which statement is NOT true regarding the SART?

(B). This is a 6 GHz transponder capable of being received by a vessel's X-band navigational radar system. NOT at 6 GHz

The radars on vessels work on the X-band. The X-band is at 9 GHz with a 3 cm wavelength.

The SART radar screen will show 12 dots (radiowave echoes) on the screen, during operation on 9 GHz X-band. The blips appear in a straight line and can be spotted easily.

For more details, please see Casual navigation site for What Is A SART?

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At what point does a SART begin transmitting?
  • It immediately begins radiating when placed in the "on" position.
  • Correct Answer
    If it has been placed in the "on" position, it will respond when it has been interrogated by a 9-GHz radar signal.
  • It must be manually activated or water activated before radiating.
  • If it has been placed in the "on" position, it will begin transmitting immediately upon detecting that it is in water.

At what point does a SART begin transmitting?

(B). If it has been placed in the "on" position, it will respond when it has been interrogated by a 9-GHz radar signal.

The SART unit operates on 9 GHz X-band, which is a 3 cm wavelength radar. The range is about 8 nautical miles, or 15 km, for the SART X-band radar. There maybe confirmation of reception of SART propagation, which would indicate a connection with rescue operations for the survival personnel. Wikipedia article on Search and rescue transponder

See illustrated activation of SART procedures on eGMDSS.com site Activating the SART

See SART info and radar display illustration on eGMDSS.com site The Basis of SART

See active SART display on radar screen SART code on the indicator of radar for ship

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A SART's signal cannot be detected:
  • In poor visibility, or at night.
  • In heavy seas.
  • Correct Answer
    By a search vessel's 10-CM Radar.
  • By a search vessel's 3-CM Radar.

A SART's signal cannot be detected:

(C). By a search vessel's 10 cm Radar.

The SART unit operates only on 9 GHz X-band, which is a 3 cm wavelength radar. The range is about 8 nautical miles, or 15 km, for the SART X-band radar. The S-band, which is 10 cm, will not be detected.
Wikipedia article on Search and rescue transponder Also, a great overall info is on Casual navigation site What Is A SART?

47 CFR 80.1085(a)(3) A radar transponder capable of operating in the 9 GHz band or an AIS-SART, which must be stowed so that it is easily utilized (this device may be one of those required by § 80.1095(b) for a survival craft);
Code of Federal Regulations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment

47 CFR 80.1095(b) At least one radar transponder or AIS-SART (collectively, “search and rescue locating devices”) must be carried on each side of every passenger ship and every cargo ship of 500 tons gross tonnage and upwards. At least one search and rescue locating device must be carried on every cargo ship of 300 tons gross tonnage and upwards but less than 500 tons gross tonnage.
Code of Federal Regulations § 80.1095 Survival craft equipment.

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