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Subelement T2
OPERATING PROCEDURES
Section T2A
Station operation: choosing an operating frequency, calling another station, test transmissions; Band plans: calling frequencies, repeater offsets
What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band?
  • Plus or minus 5 MHz
  • Correct Answer
    Plus or minus 600 kHz
  • Plus or minus 500 kHz
  • Plus or minus 1 MHz

This is a really important one to know because most amateur radio operators (particularly technician class licensees) operate most on the 2 meter band. There are three modes of operation that handheld radios generally have relative to frequency offset: Positive offset, Negative offset, and Simplex.

Positive offset means that when you transmit you will transmit at a frequency that is above the one you are listening on (and the repeater listens on that frequency and retransmits on the one you listen to). Negative offset means that you will use the frequency below the one you're listening on. Simplex means you will listen and transmit on the same frequency.

The frequencies used are not arbitrary; there are conventions. Generally in the 2 meter band the convention is +/- 600 kHz. Therefore if you are listening to 147.340 MHz and you transmit with a positive offset you will transmit 600 kHz (.6 MHz) above the frequency on 147.940 MHz. Similarly when listening to 146.620 MHz and transmitting with a negative offset you would transmit on 146.020 MHz.

Last edited by rudigomez. Register to edit

Tags: repeater band plan 2 meter arrl chapter 6 arrl module 15

What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 2 meter band?
  • Correct Answer
    146.520 MHz
  • 145.000 MHz
  • 432.100 MHz
  • 446.000 MHz

See the ARRL Band Plan for 2m. Note that 146.520MHz is the "National Simplex Calling Frequency" and there is another frequency referred to as simply the "National Calling Frequency". Don't get those two confused. The exam wants the simplex calling frequency.

Simplex means that you're transmitting and receiving on the same frequency, so by calling on the simplex frequency you're indicating that you're expecting a response on the same frequency.

Note that the band plan is not determined by the FCC so you won't see it in the Part 97 regulations.

Remember, if the exam asks you for a "national calling frequency," you only need to remember one answer: 146.520MHz.

Last edited by doctorlightbulb. Register to edit

Tags: arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band?
  • Correct Answer
    Plus or minus 5 MHz
  • Plus or minus 600 kHz
  • Plus or minus 500 kHz
  • Plus or minus 1 MHz

When using a repeater, duplex mode is used. Duplex uses two frequencies. One to listen (receive) on and the other to talk (transmit) on. The offset refers to how far apart these two frequencies are. The one you dial into your radio is the listen frequency; the offset frequency is the transmit one.

On 70 cm, typically 5 MHz is used, while 600 KHz is used on the 2 M band

For these two bands, just remember Higher Frequency, Higher Offset.

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Tags: 70 cm repeater band plan arrl chapter 6 arrl module 15

What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station's call sign?
  • Say "break, break," then say the station's call sign
  • Correct Answer
    Say the station's call sign, then identify with your call sign
  • Say "CQ" three times, then the other station's call sign
  • Wait for the station to call CQ, then answer

While this is not a hard rule, it's generally considered polite to identify yourself when beginning a conversation on Ham Radio. The easiest way to do that is to indicate who you want to talk to and then say who you are.

For example: "NV7V, this is KD7BBC". Remember that whether or not you choose to identify yourself in the initial transmission you need to identify before you finish your communication, so if you don't identify yourself when calling and they don't respond you will need to identify yourself before you turn your radio off, change frequencies, or before 10 minutes have passed. Thus it's generally better to just identify when you call.

CQ is generally not used for repeater operation since there is no need for a long call; you can simply say "This is requesting a contact" or something similar. In most areas the term "break" is used to indicate emergency traffic, but even in other areas it is not necessary to make a call.

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Tags: best practices operating procedures call signs arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

How should you respond to a station calling CQ?
  • Transmit "CQ" followed by the other station’s call sign
  • Transmit your call sign followed by the other station’s call sign
  • Correct Answer
    Transmit the other station’s call sign followed by your call sign
  • Transmit a signal report followed by your call sign

In responding to a call, you want to first specify who is being responded to and then specify who you are.

You do not transmit "CQ" because you are responding to a call, not calling any station.

You do not transmit a signal report because it is unclear who you are, and who you are transmitting a report to, before you identify yourself.

Last edited by jaacklong. Register to edit

Tags: best practices cq call signs operating procedures arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

Which of the following is required when making on-the-air test transmissions?
  • Correct Answer
    Identify the transmitting station
  • Conduct tests only between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. local time
  • Notify the FCC of the transmissions
  • All these choices are correct

Remember, any time a signal leaves your station, even if you're just testing something, you need to provide your call-sign. Usually this is done with "{your call sign here} testing, testing, testing.". This makes the intent of your communication clear, and you may even find that you get helpful feedback from another ham who might be listening.

Last edited by kd7bbc. Register to edit

Tags: operating rules operating procedures arrl chapter 8 arrl module 19

What is meant by "repeater offset”?
  • Correct Answer
    The difference between a repeater’s transmit and receive frequencies
  • The repeater has a time delay to prevent interference
  • The repeater station identification is done on a separate frequency
  • The number of simultaneous transmit frequencies used by a repeater

A repeater is a ham radio station with Automatic Control that listens on one frequency (the receive frequency) and retransmits anything it receives on another frequency (the transmit frequency). The difference (distance) between those two frequencies is commonly referred to as the repeater offset. Commonly used bands have conventions for what this offset should be, and most commonly the offset is specified as simply positive (\(+\)) or negative (\(-\)).

On 2 meters the normal offset is \(600\) kHz (that's another test question). 70 cm uses \(5\) MHz (that's another). So, if you have a 2 meter repeater on \(147.34\) MHz with a positive (\(+\)) offset you will listen to the repeater on its transmit frequency of \(147.34\) MHz and transmit to the repeater on its receive frequency of \(147.94\) MHz (\(147.34\) MHz \(+\) \(600\) KHz).

Similarly, a \(146.62\) repeater with a negative (\(-\)) offset you will listen to the repeater on its transmit frequency of \(146.62\) and transmit to the repeater on its receive frequency of \(146.02\) (\(146.62\) MHz - \(600\) KHz).

Last edited by kd7bbc. Register to edit

Tags: repeater definitions arrl chapter 6 arrl module 15

What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?
  • Call on the quarter hour
  • Test transmission, no reply expected
  • Only the called station should transmit
  • Correct Answer
    Calling any station

Saying the letters "CQ" on the air is an indication that you're trying to call any station who might be listening. If you're doing this on the lower HF bands, you would say "CQ, CQ, CQ" followed by your callsign, and repeat this a few times to give other stations a chance to find and tune into your signal. If you're talking on VHF, UHF, or on a repeater, you can simply say "CQ", followed by saying your call-sign once. Example: "CQ, this is KA1AAA". Odds are good that someone will hear your call and want to chat. Just remember "seek you", as in "calling for anyone listening".

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Tags: cq arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

Which of the following indicates that a station is listening on a repeater and looking for a contact?
  • “CQ CQ” followed by the repeater’s call sign
  • Correct Answer
    The station’s call sign followed by the word “monitoring
  • The repeater call sign followed by the station’s call sign
  • “QSY” followed by your call sign

Often you may want to indicate that you are listening on a repeater and available to talk to without requesting specifically that you would like someone to contact you. In these cases it is common to simply say your call sign, sometimes followed by "listening" or "monitoring" or even "mobile" or "mobile and monitoring". The specific phrases used tend to vary by area, but in all cases it is just a way to let anyone else on frequency know that you are around in case someone may want to talk to you.

Even in cases where you do want to make a contact it is common when using a repeater to say "KD7BBC, requesting contact" or something similar rather than specifically calling "CQ", simply because repeater operation is generally pretty reliable, unlike HF/shortwave operation in which it is often difficult to know what stations may be able to hear you or how far away they may be. Repeater operation tends to be a lot less formal in general than HF operation.

QSY is a Q code meaning that you are changing frequency or asking if you should change frequency.

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Tags: cq call signs operating procedures arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC?
  • Correct Answer
    A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band
  • A list of operating schedules
  • A list of available net frequencies
  • A plan devised by a club to indicate frequency band usage

A band plan indicates, according to the local needs, what modes of operations (voice, packet, etc.) are used on what frequencies. Some restrictions are dictated by the FCC but not all. For example, the frequencies used for satellite communications and repeater use are determined by the FCC for all areas of the United States.

On the other hand, the frequencies that are used for packet radio are determined by the ARRL representative in the local area (State). You may also hear some of the band plan frequencies referred to as "gentleman agreements" indicating that we need to follow the documented plan or else risk the ire of those using it for the intended purpose.

As an example, the band plan for those operating in Utah is shown at the Utah VHF Society website. This site also provides excellent information of what is mandated by law and what is determined locally.

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Tags: band plan operating procedures arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What term describes an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency?
  • Full duplex
  • Diplex
  • Correct Answer
    Simplex
  • Multiplex

Simplex communication refers to the configuration such that only one person can communicate at a time. When a station is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency, the operator can either send or receive, but not both. For amateur radio, simplex communication means that a single frequency is used for both transmitting and receiving.

Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency is the simplest mode of communication, thus the term Simplex.

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Tags: operating procedures radio operation definitions arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What should you do before calling CQ?
  • Listen first to be sure that no one else is using the frequency
  • Ask if the frequency is in use
  • Make sure you are authorized to use that frequency
  • Correct Answer
    All these choices are correct

The three things you should do:

  • Listen first to be sure that nobody else is using the frequency. This may seem obvious, but it's surprisingly easy when you're trying to find a contact to just start sending but if you just changed frequencies there could just be a brief break in the conversation and you don't want to be rude and walk all over a QSO which is in-progress.

  • Ask if the frequency is in use. For the same reason as above, if you plan to use it you should do a quick query first -- the frequency may be in use by an existing QSO or even an event. Taking 30 seconds to say "This is AA1AA, is this frequency clear for me to call CQ?" can save some hard feelings and embarrassment.

  • Make sure you are authorized to use that frequency. Once again it's surprisingly easy when working some radios to jog the dial a bit and find outself outside of where you are authorized to transmit. Double check =]

So yes, all of these are correct.

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Tags: best practices cq call signs operating procedures arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

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