Inductance is a property of circuits that oppose changes in current. The time constant is the time current WOULD need to reach final value IF the initial rate of change COULD be maintained. The time constant in seconds equals L in henrys divided by R in ohms: the lower the resistance, the greater the rate of change resulting in greater opposition. The current after 1, 2 and 5 time constants is respectively 63%, 87% and 100% of the final value. With capacitors, the ratios are the same but they relate to voltage; the time constant then becomes R times C.
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Capacitance is a property of circuits that oppose changes in voltage. Under charging conditions, the time constant is the time voltage WOULD need to reach the final value IF the initial rate of change COULD be maintained. The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. The voltage after 1, 2 and 5 times constants is respectively 63%, 87% and 100% of the final value. With inductors, the ratios are the same but they relate to current; the time constant then becomes L divided by R.
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Inductance is a property of circuits that oppose changes in current. The time constant is the time current WOULD need to reach final value IF the initial rate of change COULD be maintained. The time constant in seconds equals L in henrys divided by R in ohms: the lower the resistance, the greater the rate of change resulting in greater opposition. The current after 1, 2 and 5 time constants is respectively 63%, 87% and 100% of the final value. With capacitors, the ratios are the same but they relate to voltage; the time constant then becomes R times C.
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Key word: DISCHARGE. The time constant is the time voltage WOULD need to reach the final value IF the initial rate of change COULD be maintained. The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. The voltage after 1, 2 and 5 times constants is respectively 63%, 87% and 100% of the final value. Heading towards ZERO, we are left with 37% (100 minus 63) and 13% (100 minus 87) respectively after 1 and 2 time constants.
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'Back EMF' or 'counter electromotive force' is the voltage induced by changing current in an inductor. It is the force opposing changes in current through inductors.
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Capacitance is a property of circuits that oppose changes in voltage. Under charging conditions, the time constant is the time voltage WOULD need to reach the final value IF the initial rate of change COULD be maintained. The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. The voltage after 1, 2 and 5 times constants is respectively 63%, 87% and 100% of the final value. With inductors, the ratios are the same but they relate to current; the time constant then becomes L divided by R.
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Key word: DISCHARGE. The time constant is the time voltage WOULD need to reach the final value IF the initial rate of change COULD be maintained. The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. The voltage after 1, 2 and 5 times constants is respectively 63%, 87% and 100% of the final value. Heading towards ZERO, we are left with 37% (100 minus 63) and 13% (100 minus 87) respectively after 1 and 2 time constants.
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The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. In multiplying microfarads and megohms, the prefixes cancel one another. 100 microfarads times 0.470 megohm = 100 times 0.47 = 47 seconds.
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The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. In multiplying microfarads and megohms, the prefixes cancel one another. 470 microfarads times 0.470 megohm = 470 times 0.47 = 221 seconds.
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The time constant in seconds equals R in ohms times C in farads: the higher the resistance, the longer the time. In multiplying microfarads and megohms, the prefixes cancel one another. 220 microfarads times 0.470 megohm = 220 times 0.47 = 103 seconds.
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Capacitors store energy in an electrostatic field. The capacitance in farads is one factor influencing how much energy can be stored in a capacitor. The coulomb is a quantity of electrons ( 6 times 10 exponent 18 ). One farad accepts a charge of one coulomb when subjected to one volt. The watt is a rate of doing work (one joule per second). One volt, a force, moves one coulomb with one joule of energy.
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An electromagnetic field is the magnetic field created around a conductor carrying current. A magnetic field is a space around a magnet or a conductor where a magnetic force is present. A magnetic field is composed of magnetic lines of force. An electrostatic field is the electric field present between objects with different static electrical charges. An electric field is a space where an electrical charge exerts a force (attraction or repulsion) on other charges.
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The 'Left-hand Rule': position the left hand with your thumb pointing in the direction of electron flow; encircle the conductor with the remaining fingers, the fingers point in the direction of the magnetic lines of force. [ Using conventional current flow, this would become the Right-hand rule. ]
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Key word: STORED. Potential: "capable of coming into being or action (Canadian Oxford)". Kinetic: "of or due to motion (Canadian Oxford)".
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Voltage across a capacitor creates an electrostatic field between the plates. An electrostatic field is the electric field present between objects with different static electrical charges. An electric field is a space where an electrical charge exerts a force (attraction or repulsion) on other charges.
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Inductors store energy in an electromagnetic field. The inductance in henrys is one factor influencing how much energy can be stored in an inductor. One henry produces one volt of counter EMF with current changing at a rate of one ampere per second. The coulomb is a quantity of electrons ( 6 times 10 exponent 18 ). One farad accepts a charge of one coulomb when subjected to one volt. The watt is a rate of doing work (one joule per second).
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 50 times 40 equals 2000 ; The square root of 2000 is 44.7 ; 44.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 280.7 ; 1000 divided by 280.7 is 3.56 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 40 times 200 equals 8000 ; The square root of 8000 is 89.4 ; 89.4 times 2 times 3.14 is 561.4 ; 1000 divided by 561.4 is 1.78 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 50 times 10 equals 500 ; The square root of 500 is 22.4 ; 22.4 times 2 times 3.14 is 140.7 ; 1000 divided by 140.7 is 7.11 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 25 times 10 equals 250 ; The square root of 250 is 15.8 ; 15.8 times 2 times 3.14 is 99.2 ; 1000 divided by 99.2 is 10.08 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 3 times 40 equals 120 ; The square root of 120 is 11 ; 11 times 2 times 3.14 is 69.1 ; 1000 divided by 69.1 is 14.47 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 4 times 20 equals 80 ; The square root of 80 is 8.9 ; 8.9 times 2 times 3.14 is 55.9 ; 1000 divided by 55.9 is 17.89 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 8 times 7 equals 56 ; The square root of 56 is 7.5 ; 7.5 times 2 times 3.14 is 47.1 ; 1000 divided by 47.1 is 21.23 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 3 times 15 equals 45 ; The square root of 45 is 6.7 ; 6.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 42.1 ; 1000 divided by 42.1 is 23.75 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 4 times 8 equals 32 ; The square root of 32 is 5.7 ; 5.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 35.8 ; 1000 divided by 35.8 is 27.93 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 1 times 9 equals 9 ; The square root of 9 is 3 ; 3 times 2 times 3.14 is 18.8 ; 1000 divided by 18.8 is 53.19 MHz.
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Method A: Reactances are equal at resonance. XL = 2 times 3.14 times 14.25 times 2.84 = 254.2 ohms. XC = 1 over ( 2 pi f C ). Restating for f in megahertz and C in picofarads, XC = one million over 2 pi megahertz times picofarads. Thus, C = one million over ( 2 pi f XC ) ; 2 times 3.14 times 14.25 times 254.2 = 22 748 ; one million divided by 22 748 = 43.96 picofarads. Method B: at 14 MHz, C has to be in picofarads; test the two answers in picofarads with "resonant frequency in megahertz equals 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads )".
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 1 times 10 equals 10 ; The square root of 9 is 3.2 ; 3.2 times 2 times 3.14 is 20.1 ; 1000 divided by 20.1 is 49.75 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 2 times 15 equals 30 ; The square root of 30 is 5.5 ; 5.5 times 2 times 3.14 is 34.5 ; 1000 divided by 34.5 is 28.99 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 5 times 9 equals 45 ; The square root of 45 is 6.7 ; 6.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 42.1 ; 1000 divided by 42.1 is 23.75 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 2 times 30 equals 60 ; The square root of 60 is 7.7 ; 7.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 48.4 ; 1000 divided by 48.4 is 20.66 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 15 times 5 equals 75 ; The square root of 75 is 8.7 ; 8.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 54.6 ; 1000 divided by 54.6 is 18.32 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 3 times 40 equals 120 ; The square root of 120 is 11 ; 11 times 2 times 3.14 is 69.1 ; 1000 divided by 69.1 is 14.47 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 40 times 6 equals 240 ; The square root of 240 is 15.5 ; 15.5 times 2 times 3.14 is 97.3 ; 1000 divided by 97.3 is 10.28 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 10 times 50 equals 500 ; The square root of 500 is 22.4 ; 22.4 times 2 times 3.14 is 140.7 ; 1000 divided by 140.7 is 7.11 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 200 times 10 equals 2000 ; The square root of 2000 is 44.7 ; 44.7 times 2 times 3.14 is 280.7 ; 1000 divided by 280.7 is 3.56 MHz.
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Resonant frequency equals 1 over ( 2 pi times the square root of L times C ). Restating for frequency in megahertz becomes 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads ). 90 times 100 equals 9000 ; The square root of 9000 is 94.9 ; 94.9 times 2 times 3.14 is 596 ; 1000 divided by 596 is 1.68 MHz.
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Method A: Reactances are equal at resonance. XC = 1 over ( 2 pi f C ). Restating for f in megahertz and C in picofarads, XC = one million over (2 pi times megahertz times picofarads). XC = one million divided by ( 2 times 3.14 times 14.25 times 44 ) = 254 ohms. With XL = 2 pi f L, L is XL divided by 2 pi f: 254 divided by ( 2 times 3.14 times 14.25 ) = 2.8 microhenrys. Method B: at 14 MHz, L has to be in microhenrys; test the two answers in microhenrys with "resonant frequency in megahertz equals 1000 over ( 2 pi times the square root of microhenrys times picofarads )".
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 14.128 times 2.7 = 240 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 18 000 divided by 240 = 75 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 14.128 times 4.7 = 417 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 18 000 divided by 417 = 43 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 4.468 times 47 = 1319 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 180 divided by 1319 = 0.136 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 14.225 times 3.5 = 313 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 10 000 divided by 313 = 31.9 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 7.125 times 8.2 = 367 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 1000 divided by 367 = 2.7 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 7.125 times 10.1 = 452 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 100 divided by 452 = 0.22 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 7.125 times 12.6 = 564 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 22 000 divided by 564 = 39 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 3.625 times 3 = 68 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 2200 divided by 68 = 32.3 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 3.625 times 42 = 956 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 220 divided by 956 = 0.23 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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Reactance = 2 pi f L = 2 times 3.14 times 3.625 times 43 = 979 ( the mega in megahertz cancels the micro in microhenrys). Q = 1800 divided by 979 = 1.84 . In a PARALLEL circuit loaded by a resistor, Q = Resistance divided by Reactance: the higher the parallel resistance, the lesser the effect on the response curve. Parallel resistance lowers the Q of a parallel tuned circuit. A parallel Damping Resistor is used to increase bandwidth.
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A Damping Resistor can be placed across a parallel resonant circuit, or in series with a series resonant circuit, to lower the Q. Reducing the Quality factor increases bandwidth.
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A filter with narrow bandwidth and steep skirts made with quartz crystals. "Lattice: a structure of crossed laths with spaces between, used as a screen or fence." The frequency separation between the crystals sets the bandwidth and the response shape. Crystal lattice filter: uses two matched pairs of series crystals and a higher-frequency matched pair of shunt crystals in a balanced configuration. Half-lattice crystal filter: uses two crystals in an unbalanced configuration. Such filters can be cascaded. A 'Crystal Gate' uses a single crystal.
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A filter with narrow bandwidth and steep skirts made with quartz crystals. "Lattice: a structure of crossed laths with spaces between, used as a screen or fence." The frequency separation between the crystals sets the bandwidth and the response shape. Crystal lattice filter: uses two matched pairs of series crystals and a higher-frequency matched pair of shunt crystals in a balanced configuration. Half-lattice crystal filter: uses two crystals in an unbalanced configuration. Such filters can be cascaded. A 'Crystal Gate' uses a single crystal.
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Speech frequencies on a communication-grade SSB voice channel range from 300 hertz to 3000 hertz and thus require a bandwidth of 2.7 kHz; 2.1 kHz is a good compromise between fidelity and selectivity. 15 kHz is the bandwidth of FM, 6 kHz is for AM, 500 Hz is a common filter width for CW.
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Piezoelectric crystals behave like tuned circuits with an extremely high "Q" ("Quality Factor", in excess of 25 000). Their accuracy and stability are outstanding.
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The piezoelectric property of quartz is two-fold: apply mechanical stress to a crystal and it produces a small electrical field; subject quartz to an electrical field and the crystal changes dimensions slightly. Crystals are capable of resonance either at a fundamental frequency depending on their physical dimensions or at overtone frequencies near odd-integer multiples (3rd, 5th, 7th, etc.). Piezoelectric crystals can serve as filters because of their extremely high "Q" (> 25 000) or as stable, noise-free and accurate frequency references.
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Piezoelectric crystals behave like tuned circuits with an extremely high "Q" ("Quality Factor", in excess of 25 000). Their accuracy and stability are outstanding.
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The piezoelectric property of quartz (generating electricity under mechanical stress, bending when subjected to electric field) is used in crystal-based oscillators, radio-frequency crystal filters, such as the lattice filter, and crystal microphones. The Active Filter is based on an active device, generally an operational amplifier, and a network of resistors and capacitors.
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The piezoelectric property of quartz (generating electricity under mechanical stress, bending when subjected to electric field) is used in crystal-based oscillators, radio-frequency crystal filters, such as the lattice filter, and crystal microphones. The Active Filter is based on an active device, generally an operational amplifier, and a network of resistors and capacitors.
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There are 4 categories of filters: high-pass, low-pass, band-pass and band-stop. Hartley, Colpitts and Pierce are oscillator configurations. "Capacitive" is not a range of frequencies like audio or radio. Resistors do not discriminate frequency.
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The Butterworth class of filters exhibit "maximally flat response": smooth response, no passband ripple. Their frequency response is as flat as mathematically possible in the passband, no bumps or variations (ripple) [first described by British engineer Stephen Butterworth]. The Chebyshev class of filters [in honour of Pafnuty Chebyshev, a Russian mathematician] have steeper cutoff slopes and more ripple than Butterworth filters. Elliptic filters are sharper than the previous two. Here is a mnemonic trick: "The Butterworth's response is smooth as butter".
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The Butterworth class of filters exhibit "maximally flat response": smooth response, no passband ripple. Their frequency response is as flat as mathematically possible in the passband, no bumps or variations (ripple) [first described by British engineer Stephen Butterworth]. The Chebyshev class of filters [in honour of Pafnuty Chebyshev, a Russian mathematician] have steeper cutoff slopes and more ripple than Butterworth filters. Elliptic filters are sharper than the previous two. Here is a mnemonic trick: "The Butterworth's response is smooth as butter".
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The Butterworth class of filters exhibit "maximally flat response": smooth response, no passband ripple. Their frequency response is as flat as mathematically possible in the passband, no bumps or variations (ripple) [first described by British engineer Stephen Butterworth]. The Chebyshev class of filters [in honour of Pafnuty Chebyshev, a Russian mathematician] have steeper cutoff slopes and more ripple than Butterworth filters. Elliptic filters are sharper than the previous two. Here is a mnemonic trick: "The Butterworth's response is smooth as butter".
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The quarter wavelength Resonant Cavity behaves like a very high "Q" filter. Due to their physical size, they become practical only at VHF frequencies: at 50 MHz (6 m), the length of the cavity is 1.5 m (one quarter wavelength).
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The quarter wavelength Resonant Cavity behaves like a very high "Q" filter (around 3000). Due to their physical size, they become practical only at VHF frequencies: at 50 MHz (6 m), the length of the cavity is 1.5 m (one quarter wavelength).
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The Helical Resonator, based on the concept of a resonant helically-wound section of transmission line within a shielded enclosure, achieves selectivity comparable to the quarter-wave resonant cavity but with a substantial size reduction.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The Butterworth class of filters exhibit "maximally flat response": smooth response, no passband ripple. Their frequency response is as flat as mathematically possible in the passband, no bumps or variations (ripple) [first described by British engineer Stephen Butterworth]. The Chebyshev class of filters [in honour of Pafnuty Chebyshev, a Russian mathematician] have steeper cutoff slopes and more ripple than Butterworth filters. Elliptic filters are sharper than the previous two. Here is a mnemonic trick: "The Butterworth's response is smooth as butter".
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
Tags: none
The Butterworth class of filters exhibit "maximally flat response": smooth response, no passband ripple. Their frequency response is as flat as mathematically possible in the passband, no bumps or variations (ripple) [first described by British engineer Stephen Butterworth]. The Chebyshev class of filters [in honour of Pafnuty Chebyshev, a Russian mathematician] have steeper cutoff slopes and more ripple than Butterworth filters. Elliptic filters are sharper than the previous two. Here is a mnemonic trick: "The Butterworth's response is smooth as butter".
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
Tags: none
The quarter wavelength Resonant Cavity behaves like a very high "Q" filter. Due to their physical size, they become practical only at VHF frequencies: at 50 MHz (6 m), the length of the cavity is 1.5 m (one quarter wavelength).
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
Tags: none