Key word: EASIEST. Reading the peak-to-peak amplitude of a waveform is easier than attempting to precisely center the waveform to determine the peak value. RMS and Average values can only be computed from the peak value or peak-to-peak values.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak is half the peak-to-peak. RMS (or effective) is 0.707 times the peak value. 340 volts divided by 2 times 0.707 = 120 volts RMS.
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A kettle would bring the same quantity of water to a boil within the same time whether it runs on 120 volts DC or 120 volts RMS AC.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A kettle would bring the same quantity of water to a boil within the same time whether it runs on 120 volts DC or 120 volts RMS AC.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Knowing that RMS is peak times 0.707, peak must be RMS divided by 0.707 . Peak-to-peak is twice the peak value. 120 volts RMS divided by 0.707 = 170 volts peak. 170 volts peak times 2 = 340 volts peak-to-peak.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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PIV = Peak Inverse Voltage (diode rating). ERP = Effective Radiated Power (transmit power minus line losses plus antenna gain). Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage. In this example, 200 divided by 2 = 100 volts peak ; (100 times 0.707) squared = 5000 ; 5000 divided by 50 = 100 watts PEP.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage. In this example, 500 divided by 2 = 250 volts peak ; (250 times 0.707) squared = 31 240 ; 31 240 divided by 50 = 625 watts PEP.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Key word: UNMODULATED. This is a catch. There would be no difference between output power and PEP in the absence of modulation. [ With modulation, the answer would have been different. Some wattmeters are calibrated to read peak power. ]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage. In this example, 400 divided by 2 = 200 volts peak ; (200 times 0.707) squared = 20 000 ; 20 000 divided by 50 = 400 watts PEP.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage. In this example, 800 divided by 2 = 400 volts peak ; (400 times 0.707) squared = 80 000 ; 80 000 divided by 50 = 1600 watts PEP.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Peak Envelope Power (PEP) in SSB is defined as the power during one cycle on a modulation peak. Knowing that P = E squared divided by R, that peak voltage is half the peak-to-peak value and that RMS voltage is peak times 0.707 . PEP can be computed as ((peak voltage times 0.707) squared ) divided by R. When given peak-to-peak, first divide by 2 to obtain peak voltage. In this example, 500 divided by 2 = 250 volts peak ; (250 times 0.707) squared = 31 240 ; 31 240 divided by 50 = 625 watts PEP.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Key word: DIRECTLY. A 'Dip Meter' cannot measure inductance or capacitance DIRECTLY but if an unknown component is first attached to a known inductance or capacitance, the unknown value can be computed once the resonant frequency of the combination is obtained. The oscillator in a dip meter can usually be disabled to turn the instrument into an absorption wavemeter.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Signal Generator' is an instrument capable of producing any of a wide range of frequencies (RF frequencies for radio work). Signal generators sometimes include a calibrated output attenuator so a given amplitude can be produced (e.g., a certain number of microvolts). Calibration in that case is only accurate if the generator feeds a circuit with the expected impedance. An instrument which "generates reference signals at exact frequency intervals" is a marker generator or crystal calibrator.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Signal Generator' is an instrument capable of producing any of a wide range of frequencies (RF frequencies for radio work). Signal generators sometimes include a calibrated output attenuator so a given amplitude can be produced (e.g., a certain number of microvolts). Calibration in that case is only accurate if the generator feeds a circuit with the expected impedance. An instrument which "generates reference signals at exact frequency intervals" is a marker generator or crystal calibrator.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The SINAD (signal + noise + distortion over noise + distortion) ratio takes the SNR (signal + noise over noise ratio) one step further by including distortion. A 12 dB SINAD ratio ensures that speech remains intelligible. Sensitivity expressed in those terms is the lowest RF level that will produce a usable message. The RF signal generator must be calibrated so the number of microvolts is precisely determined. Total Harmonic Distortion compares unwanted harmonic components added to the desired fundamental frequency, an audio tone in this instance.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A 'Dip Meter' is an instrument incorporating a Variable Frequency Oscillator whose resonant circuit can be placed near circuits to be tested. The oscillator's activity is monitored with a built-in meter. When the external circuit's resonant frequency matches the oscillator's frequency, energy is absorbed and a dip is observed on the meter. It works best on parallel-tuned circuits. It can be used to test antenna traps and tuned circuits in static conditions (i.e., not operating). Overcoupling, hand capacity and stray capacity all introduce errors.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Two methods exist for determining frequency: counting the number of cycles in a fixed time interval or counting the time interval for some integer number of input cycles. In both cases, the instrument relies on an internal time base ( a crystal reference oscillator ). The accuracy of the measurement depends on the accuracy and stability (short and long-term) of the time base. Speed limitations in the logic circuitry limit the frequency range for a given instrument.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Two methods exist for determining frequency: counting the number of cycles in a fixed time interval or counting the time interval for some integer number of input cycles. In both cases, the instrument relies on an internal time base ( a crystal reference oscillator ). The accuracy of the measurement depends on the accuracy and stability (short and long-term) of the time base. Speed limitations in the logic circuitry limit the frequency range for a given instrument.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Two methods exist for determining frequency: counting the number of cycles in a fixed time interval or counting the time interval for some integer number of input cycles. In both cases, the instrument relies on an internal time base ( a crystal reference oscillator ). The accuracy of the measurement depends on the accuracy and stability (short and long-term) of the time base. Speed limitations in the logic circuitry limit the frequency range for a given instrument.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The reading can be off by as much as the time base accuracy in Parts Per Million times the measured frequency in megahertz: 1 part per million is one hertz per megahertz. [ In reality, an added error of plus or minus 1 count exists as the last digit displayed may have been rounded up or down. ]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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The reading can be off by as much as the time base accuracy in Parts Per Million times the measured frequency in megahertz: 1 part per million is one hertz per megahertz. [ In reality, an added error of plus or minus 1 count exists as the last digit displayed may have been rounded up or down. ]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Two methods exist for determining frequency: counting the number of cycles in a fixed time interval or counting the time interval for some integer number of input cycles. In both cases, the instrument relies on an internal time base ( a crystal reference oscillator ). The accuracy of the measurement depends on the accuracy and stability (short and long-term) of the time base. Speed limitations in the logic circuitry limit the frequency range for a given instrument.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Two methods exist for determining frequency: counting the number of cycles in a fixed time interval or counting the time interval for some integer number of input cycles. In both cases, the instrument relies on an internal time base ( a crystal reference oscillator ). The accuracy of the measurement depends on the accuracy and stability (short and long-term) of the time base. Speed limitations in the logic circuitry limit the frequency range for a given instrument.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A frequency marker generator (or crystal calibrator) is a relatively stable and precise oscillator rich in harmonics. It is typically used to calibrate analog station receivers by providing reference signals at known intervals on the dial. For an HF receiver, harmonics may be generated every 25, 50 or 100 kHz throughout the HF spectrum. For microwave work, harmonics of 144 MHz are useful for 432 MHz (3x), 1296 (9x), 2304 (16x), 3456 (24x), 5760 (40x), 10368 (72x) and 24192 MHz (168x). The "harmonic calibrator" is a bogus answer.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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One way to calibrate a crystal calibrator (frequency marker generator) is to turn it on so it is heard while receiving a standard frequency station on shortwave. "Zero beating", which can be done audibly, is bringing, through adjustment, the difference between two frequencies down to zero. When two RF signals (calibrator and reference station) are nearly at the same frequency, they produce a heterodyne (beat) which falls in the audio range; the lower the beat note, the closer the match.
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Key word: NOT. The voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) is always part of a larger ensemble, its stability is not controlled, but can be controlled by an external circuit. The temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) relies on a temperature sensor and some circuitry (analog or digital) to correct (compensate) the frequency. The oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO) maintains the crystal at a precise and constant temperature well above ambient temperature. The GPS disciplined oscillator (GPSDO) uses a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver to synchronize an oscillator with the highly accurate reference signals from the satellites.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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One way to calibrate a crystal calibrator (frequency marker generator) is to turn it on so it is heard while receiving a standard frequency station on shortwave. "Zero beating", which can be done audibly, is bringing, through adjustment, the difference between two frequencies down to zero. When two RF signals (calibrator and reference station) are nearly at the same frequency, they produce a heterodyne (beat) which falls in the audio range; the lower the beat note, the closer the match. [ Station WWV broadcasts time and frequency information from Fort Collins, Colorado; it is maintained by the Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Using the horizontal and vertical inputs on an oscilloscope, it is possible to compare the frequency of two sine waves or the phase relationship of two signals of equal frequency. The resulting pattern is called a "Lissajous Figure". Apply a known signal to the horizontal input. The ratio of the number of loops on the horizontal edge to the number on the vertical edge equals the ratio of the vertical frequency Y divided by horizontal frequency X: the number of cycles the Y frequency covers during one horizontal cycle. [French mathematician Jules-Antoine Lissajous]
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Similarly to the frequency counter, the accuracy and stability of the time base responsible for sweeping on the horizontal axis are paramount. The top frequency is limited by the highest horizontal sweep rate and bandwidth of the horizontal and vertical deflection amplifiers.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Similarly to the frequency counter, the accuracy and stability of the time base responsible for sweeping on the horizontal axis are paramount. The top frequency is limited by the highest horizontal sweep rate and bandwidth of the horizontal and vertical deflection amplifiers.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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A dual-trace oscilloscope has two distinct vertical channels. They can be used to take simultaneous measurements at different points in a circuit.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Measuring frequency is a matter of using the horizontal sweep rate and number of divisions to determine the period of one cycle of the waveform. Measuring deviation requires a deviation meter.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Similarly to the frequency counter, the accuracy and stability of the time base responsible for sweeping on the horizontal axis are paramount. The top frequency is limited by the highest horizontal sweep rate and bandwidth of the horizontal and vertical deflection amplifiers.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Two in-phase signals of the same frequency applied to the X and Y amplifiers will grow exactly at the same rate: equal deflection on the X and Y create a trace at a 45 degree angle. Ponder these X and Y values: 1 and 1, 2 and 2, 3 and 3, etc. A precise 180 degree phase difference has a similar effect except the trace appears in the other two quadrants. Ponder these X and Y values: 1 and -1, 2 and -2, 3 and -3, etc. [other angles correspond to the sine function of the ratio of Y as the ellipse crosses the vertical centre axis to the maximum Y value.]
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Using the horizontal and vertical inputs on an oscilloscope, it is possible to compare the frequency of two sine waves or the phase relationship of two signals of equal frequency. The resulting pattern is called a "Lissajous Figure". Apply a known signal to the horizontal input. The ratio of the number of loops on the horizontal edge to the number on the vertical edge equals the ratio of the vertical frequency Y divided by horizontal frequency X: the number of cycles the Y frequency covers during one horizontal cycle. In this example, the unknown frequency is two fifths the known frequency. [French mathematician Jules-Antoine Lissajous]
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"Probe compensation is the process of adjusting the probe's RC network divider so that the probe maintains its attenuation ratio over the probe's rated bandwidth. Most scopes have a square wave reference signal available on the front panel to use for compensating the probe. You can attach the probe tip to the probe compensation terminal and connect the probe to an input of the scope. Viewing the square wave reference signal, make the proper adjustments on the probe using a small screw driver so that the square waves on the scope screen look square" (Jae-yong Chang, Agilent Technologies). Given that the input circuitry cannot be identical between instruments, adjustment must be made every time a high-impedance probe is used with a different scope.
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An oscilloscope of sufficient bandwidth permits visualizing the transmitter's output. The sidetone monitor merely produces a tone when a CW transmitter is keyed. The field-strength meter reports relative field strength in proximity to antennas. The signal tracer permits troubleshooting audio circuitry.
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The most accurate representation of a transmitted signal can be viewed at the RF output of a transmitter. The correct method supposes the use of a "sampler" in the transmission line. That way, proper impedance match is maintained, instruments are protected from large voltages and extraneous signals are minimized.
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Extending the range of an ammeter supposes placing a shunt resistor across the meter movement to divert part of the current: the shunt resistor = internal resistance divided by the multiplication factor from which we will first have deducted a quantity of one. For example, making a 40 microamperes movement, with a 96 ohms internal resistance, read 1000 microamperes at full scale is a factor of 25: the shunt = 96 ohms divided by 24 (i.e., 25 minus 1) = 4 ohms. Method B: you could have computed voltage across the meter as 40 times 96 = 3840 microvolts ; and then, computed the shunt resistor as 3840 microvolts divided by 960 microamperes = 4 ohms.
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Turning an ammeter into a voltmeter supposes inserting a suitable resistor in series with the instrument. For a current of 1 milliampere to flow under 20 volts, Ohm's Law tells us that a total resistance of 20 000 ohms is required. Subtract the internal resistance from that number and the actual series resistance needed is 19 999.5 ohms.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Extending the range of a voltmeter supposes placing a suitable multiplier resistor in series with the instrument: the multiplier resistance = total internal resistance times the multiplication factor from which we will first have deducted a quantity of one. For example, to turn a 150 volts meter, with an internal resistance of 150 000 ohms, to read 750 volts full scale is an increase of 5 times: the multiplier resistor = 150 000 times 4 (i.e., 5 minus 1) = 600 000 ohms. Method B: current for full-scale reading = 150 volts divided by 150 000 ohms = 1 milliampere. The total resistance that would allow 1 milliampere under 750 volts = 750 000 ohms. Deduct the internal resistance from this value to determine the multiplier resistor.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Voltmeter sensitivity in ohms per volt: i.e., the full-scale reading times the sensitivity yields total instrument resistance. Given total resistance, sensitivity can be computed as resistance divided by full-scale voltage reading: e.g., a total of 150 000 ohms for a voltmeter reading 150 volts is a sensitivity of 1000 ohms per volt. Given sensitivity, the current needed for full-scale voltmeter reading follows Ohm's Law: e.g., a voltmeter with a sensitivity of 20 000 ohms per volt uses a 50 microampere movement ( I = 1 volt divided by 20 000 = 50 microamperes ).
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Voltmeter sensitivity in ohms per volt: i.e., the full-scale reading times the sensitivity yields total instrument resistance. Given total resistance, sensitivity can be computed as resistance divided by full-scale voltage reading: e.g., a total of 150 000 ohms for a voltmeter reading 150 volts is a sensitivity of 1000 ohms per volt. Given sensitivity, the current needed for full-scale voltmeter reading follows Ohm's Law: e.g., a voltmeter with a sensitivity of 20 000 ohms per volt uses a 50 microampere movement ( I = 1 volt divided by 20 000 = 50 microamperes ).
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Extending the range of an ammeter supposes placing a shunt resistor across the meter movement to divert part of the current: the shunt resistor = internal resistance divided by the multiplication factor from which we will first have deducted a quantity of one.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Extending the range of a voltmeter supposes placing a suitable multiplier resistor in series with the instrument; the higher the series resistance, the higher the voltage needed to obtain full-scale deflection on the meter.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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Extending the range of an ammeter supposes placing a shunt resistor across the meter movement to divert part of the current: the shunt resistor = internal resistance divided by the multiplication factor from which we will first have deducted a quantity of one.
Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.
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