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Subelement L16
Routine operation.
Section L16
What is a good way to make contact on a repeater?
  • Say the other operator's name, then your call sign three times
  • Say, "Breaker, breaker,"
  • Say the call sign of the station you want to contact three times
  • Correct Answer
    Say the call sign of the station you want to contact, then your call sign

Say the call sign of the other station FIRST (to get his attention), the expression "THIS IS" and your call sign.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the main purpose of a repeater?
  • To retransmit weather information during severe storm warnings
  • To make local information available 24 hours a day
  • Correct Answer
    To increase the range of portable and mobile stations
  • To link amateur stations with the telephone system

A 'Repeater' is generally located on a hill or tall building. It is meant to extend the range of portables and mobiles.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is frequency coordination on VHF and UHF bands?
  • The selection of simplex frequencies by individual operators
  • A part of the planning prior to a contest
  • Correct Answer
    A process which seeks to carefully assign frequencies so as to minimize interference with neighbouring repeaters
  • A band plan detailing modes and frequency segments within a band

Frequency coordination committees or councils are regional volunteer organizations which promote discussion between repeater trustees so that frequency selection reduces interference in areas where repeater coverage overlaps.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the purpose of a repeater time-out timer?
  • It tells how long someone has been using a repeater
  • Correct Answer
    It interrupts lengthy transmissions without pauses
  • It lets a repeater have a rest period after heavy use
  • It logs repeater transmit time to predict when a repeater will fail

The 'Time-out Timer' takes a repeater off the air after a determined time of continuous transmission, either unintended or malicious. The timer enforces pauses between transmissions.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is a CTCSS tone?
  • A special signal used for radio control of model craft
  • Correct Answer
    A sub-audible tone that activates a receiver audio output when present
  • A tone used by repeaters to mark the end of a transmission
  • A special signal used for telemetry between amateur space stations and Earth stations

CTCSS -- "Continuous Tone-Controlled Squelch System". A receiver equipped with a CTCSS decoder will not reproduce a signal unless it carries a given sub-audible tone in the background, for example a continuous 100 Hz tone. To work with such receivers, a transmitter must be equipped with a CTCSS encoder [ Standard tones are in the range of 67 to 254 Hz, below the normal speech frequencies of 300 to 3000 Hz ]. [ PL (Private Line) is a trademark of Motorola ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

How do you call another station on a repeater if you know the station's call sign?
  • Correct Answer
    Say the station's call sign, then identify your own station
  • Say "break, break 79," then say the station's call sign
  • Say "CQ" three times, then say the station's call sign
  • Wait for the station to call "CQ", then answer it

Say the call sign of the other station FIRST (to get his attention), the expression "THIS IS" and your call sign. "CQ" is a general call to ANY station (primarily meant for HF).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Why should you pause briefly between transmissions when using a repeater?
  • Correct Answer
    To listen for anyone else wanting to use the repeater
  • To check the SWR of the repeater
  • To reach for pencil and paper for third-party communications
  • To dial up the repeater's autopatch

Repeaters are meant primarily to extend the range of portables and mobiles. You never know when someone else might need the repeater. Be sure to leave pauses in between transmissions. Anyone wanting the repeater may signal his presence by stating his call sign during one such pause. A station may have emergency traffic.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Why should you keep transmissions short when using a repeater?
  • To keep long-distance charges down
  • To give any listening non-hams a chance to respond
  • To see if the receiving station operator is still awake
  • Correct Answer
    A long transmission may prevent someone with an emergency from using the repeater

Repeaters are meant primarily to extend the range of portables and mobiles. You never know when someone else might need the repeater. Be sure to leave pauses in between transmissions. Anyone wanting the repeater may signal his presence by stating his call sign during one such pause. A station may have emergency traffic.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the proper way to join into a conversation on a repeater?
  • Turn on an amplifier and override whoever is talking
  • Correct Answer
    Say your call sign during a break between transmissions
  • Wait for the end of a transmission and start calling the desired party
  • Shout, "break, break!" to show that you're eager to join the conversation

Repeaters are meant primarily to extend the range of portables and mobiles. You never know when someone else might need the repeater. Be sure to leave pauses in between transmissions. Anyone wanting the repeater may signal his presence by stating his call sign during one such pause. A station may have emergency traffic.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the accepted way to ask someone their location when using a repeater?
  • What is your 20?
  • Locations are not normally told by radio
  • What is your 12?
  • Correct Answer
    Where are you?

Plain language is normally used on repeaters.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

FM repeater operation on the 2 metre band uses one frequency for transmission and one for reception. The difference in frequency between the transmit and receive frequency is normally:
  • 1 000 kHz
  • 400 kHz
  • Correct Answer
    600 kHz
  • 800 kHz

The difference between the OUTPUT and INPUT frequencies of a repeater is termed the 'Offset'. On 2 m, the standard is "plus 600 kHz" or "minus 600 kHz".

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

To make your call sign better understood when using voice transmissions, what should you do?
  • Talk louder
  • Turn up your microphone gain
  • Correct Answer
    Use Standard International Phonetics for each letter of your call sign
  • Use any words which start with the same letters as your call sign for each letter of your call

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What can you use as an aid for correct station identification when using phone?
  • Unique words of your choice
  • A speech compressor
  • Correct Answer
    The Standard International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Q signals

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter A?
  • America
  • Correct Answer
    Alfa
  • Able
  • Adam

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter B?
  • Brazil
  • Borneo
  • Baker
  • Correct Answer
    Bravo

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter D?
  • Dog
  • Denmark
  • David
  • Correct Answer
    Delta

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter E?
  • Edward
  • England
  • Correct Answer
    Echo
  • Easy

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter G?
  • Germany
  • Gibraltar
  • Correct Answer
    Golf
  • George

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter I?
  • Item
  • Correct Answer
    India
  • Iran
  • Italy

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter L?
  • Correct Answer
    Lima
  • Love
  • London
  • Luxembourg

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter P?
  • Correct Answer
    Papa
  • Portugal
  • Paris
  • Peter

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter R?
  • Correct Answer
    Romeo
  • Roger
  • Radio
  • Romania

To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the correct way to call "CQ" when using voice?
  • Say "CQ" at least ten times, followed by "this is," followed by your call sign spoken once
  • Correct Answer
    Say "CQ" three times, followed by "this is," followed by your call sign spoken three times
  • Say "CQ" once, followed by "this is," followed by your call sign spoken three times
  • Say "CQ" at least five times, followed by "this is," followed by your call sign spoken once

A call to any station: "CQ" three times, "THIS IS", your call sign three times. Any word only spoken once might easily not get noticed.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

How should you answer a voice CQ call?
  • Say the other station's call sign at least ten times, followed by "this is," then your call sign at least twice
  • Correct Answer
    Say the other station's call sign once, followed by "this is," then your call sign given phonetically
  • Say the other station's call sign at least five times phonetically, followed by "this is," then your call sign twice
  • Say the other station's call sign at least three times, followed by "this is," and your call sign at least five times phonetically

Anything spoken five or ten times is just overkill.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is simplex operation?
  • Correct Answer
    Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency
  • Transmitting and receiving over a wide area
  • Transmitting on one frequency and receiving on another
  • Transmitting one-way communications

'Simplex' ( also known as direct ) operation where two stations use one frequency in turns contrasts with repeater operation (duplex) where two frequencies are used simultaneously ( the repeater output frequency and the repeater input frequency ). Stations should avoid tying-up a repeater for long periods of time when within range of one another on a simplex frequency. Most receivers can be switched to the repeater input frequency at the press of a button (this is useful to verify if simplex operation is possible with a given station).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

When should you consider using simplex operation instead of a repeater?
  • Correct Answer
    When signals are reliable between communicating parties without using a repeater
  • When the most reliable communications are needed
  • When an emergency telephone call is needed
  • When you are traveling and need some local information

'Simplex' ( also known as direct ) operation where two stations use one frequency in turns contrasts with repeater operation (duplex) where two frequencies are used simultaneously ( the repeater output frequency and the repeater input frequency ). Stations should avoid tying-up a repeater for long periods of time when within range of one another on a simplex frequency. Most receivers can be switched to the repeater input frequency at the press of a button (this is useful to verify if simplex operation is possible with a given station).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Why should local amateur communications use VHF and UHF frequencies instead of HF frequencies?
  • Because HF transmissions are not propagated locally
  • Because signals are stronger on VHF and UHF frequencies
  • Correct Answer
    To minimize interference on HF bands capable of long-distance communication
  • Because greater output power is permitted on VHF and UHF

Always choose a frequency with the least reach so the spectrum remains usable elsewhere.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Why should we be careful in choosing a simplex frequency when operating VHF or UHF FM?
  • Some frequencies are designated for narrow band FM and others for wideband FM
  • Correct Answer
    You may inadvertently choose a channel that is the input to a local repeater
  • Interference may be caused to unlicensed devices operating in the same band
  • Implanted medical devices share the same spectrum

Because repeaters use two frequencies, an input and an output, you could unknowingly choose a frequency which appears free, but happens to be the input of a repeater. Your transmissions would be rebroadcast and repeater users would be blocked from using the repeater. Amateur organizations publish 'band plans' which suggest what type of operation is advisable in which segments of the bands.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you are talking to a station using a repeater, how would you find out if you could communicate using simplex instead?
  • Correct Answer
    See if you can clearly receive the station on the repeater's input frequency
  • See if a third station can clearly receive both of you
  • See if you can clearly receive a more distant repeater
  • See if you can clearly receive the station on a lower frequency band

'Simplex' ( also known as direct ) operation where two stations use one frequency in turns contrasts with repeater operation (duplex) where two frequencies are used simultaneously ( the repeater output frequency and the repeater input frequency ). Stations should avoid tying-up a repeater for long periods of time when within range of one another on a simplex frequency. Most receivers can be switched to the repeater input frequency at the press of a button (this is useful to verify if simplex operation is possible with a given station).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you are operating simplex on a repeater frequency, why would it be good amateur practice to change to another frequency?
  • Changing the repeater's frequency requires the authorization of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
  • Correct Answer
    Changing the repeater's frequency is not practical
  • The repeater's output power may ruin your station's receiver
  • There are more repeater operators than simplex operators

If you operate simplex on a repeater frequency, you are preventing others from using the repeater. Amateur organizations publish 'Band Plans' where segments reserved for simplex operation are recommended.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Which sideband is commonly used for 20-metre phone operation?
  • Correct Answer
    Upper
  • Lower
  • FM
  • Double

Choice of sideband: BELOW 10 MHZ ( 160 m, 80 m, 40 m ), use Lower Sideband (LSB). Above 10 MHz ( 20 m and up ), use Upper Sideband (USB). The new (2014) 60 metres band is an exception.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Which sideband is commonly used on 3755 kHz for phone operation?
  • Upper
  • Correct Answer
    Lower
  • FM
  • Double

Choice of sideband: BELOW 10 MHZ ( 160 m, 80 m, 40 m ), use Lower Sideband (LSB). Above 10 MHz ( 20 m and up ), use Upper Sideband (USB). The new (2014) 60 metres band is an exception.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the best method to tell if a band is "open" for communication with a particular distant location?
  • Correct Answer
    Listen for signals from that area from an amateur beacon station or a foreign broadcast or television station on a nearby frequency
  • Ask others on your local 2 metre FM repeater
  • Telephone an experienced local amateur
  • Look at the propagation forecasts in an amateur radio magazine

'Beacons' are one-way automated stations maintained by amateurs which operate on known frequencies to permit evaluating propagation conditions.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What should you do before you transmit on any frequency?
  • Listen to make sure that someone will be able to hear you
  • Correct Answer
    Listen to make sure others are not using the frequency
  • Check your antenna for resonance at the selected frequency
  • Make sure the SWR on your antenna transmission line is high enough

First, listen for a little while then ask "Is this frequency in use?" ( QRL? in Morse ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you contact another station and your signal is extremely strong and perfectly readable, what adjustment should you make to your transmitter?
  • Continue with your contact, making no changes
  • Correct Answer
    Turn down your power output to the minimum necessary
  • Turn on your speech processor
  • Reduce your SWR

Amateurs should always use the minimum power required.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is one way to shorten transmitter tune-up time on the air to cut down on interference?
  • Use twin lead instead of coaxial cable transmission lines
  • Correct Answer
    Tune the transmitter into a dummy load
  • Use a long wire antenna
  • Tune up on 40 metres first, then switch to the desired band

The 'Dummy Load' (a resistor with a high power rating) dissipates RF energy as heat without radiating the RF on the air. Permits tests or adjustments without causing interference to other stations. The 'tuning process' (or 'loading') refers to a manual procedure necessary for equipment with vacuum tube final Power Amplifiers where variable capacitors needed to be adjusted.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

How can on-the-air interference be minimized during a lengthy transmitter testing or tuning procedure?
  • Choose an unoccupied frequency
  • Use a non-resonant antenna
  • Use a resonant antenna that requires no loading-up procedure
  • Correct Answer
    Use a dummy load

The 'Dummy Load' (a resistor with a high power rating) dissipates RF energy as heat without radiating the RF on the air. Permits tests or adjustments without causing interference to other stations. The 'tuning process' (or 'loading') refers to a manual procedure necessary for equipment with vacuum tube final Power Amplifiers where variable capacitors needed to be adjusted.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Why would you use a dummy load?
  • To reduce output power
  • Correct Answer
    To test or adjust your transceiver without causing interference
  • To give comparative signal reports
  • It is faster to tune

The 'Dummy Load' (a resistor with a high power rating) dissipates RF energy as heat without radiating the RF on the air. Permits tests or adjustments without causing interference to other stations. The 'tuning process' (or 'loading') refers to a manual procedure necessary for equipment with vacuum tube final Power Amplifiers where variable capacitors needed to be adjusted.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you are the net control station of a daily HF net, what should you do if the frequency on which you normally meet is in use just before the net begins?
  • Cancel the net for that day
  • Correct Answer
    Call and ask occupants to relinquish the frequency for the scheduled net operations, but if they are not agreeable, conduct the net on a frequency 3 to 5 kHz away from the regular net frequency
  • Reduce your output power and start the net as usual
  • Increase your power output so that net participants will be able to hear you over the existing activity

A 'Net' is an activity carried on a given day and time at a known frequency where stations exchange information. Although no given station is entitled to any specific frequency (regardless of qualification, power or affiliation), stations would normally yield to an established daily net but if not, you need to move the net away.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If a net is about to begin on a frequency which you and another station are using, what should you do?
  • Turn off your radio
  • Correct Answer
    As a courtesy to the net, move to a different frequency
  • Increase your power output to ensure that all net participants can hear you
  • Transmit as long as possible on the frequency so that no other stations may use it

A 'Net' is an activity carried on a given day and time at a known frequency where stations exchange information. Although no given station is entitled to any specific frequency (regardless of qualification, power or affiliation), stations would normally yield to an established daily net but if not, you need to move the net away.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If propagation changes during your contact and you notice increasing interference from other activity on the same frequency, what should you do?
  • Increase the output power of your transmitter to overcome the interference
  • Correct Answer
    Move your contact to another frequency
  • Tell the interfering stations to change frequency, since you were there first
  • Report the interference to your local Amateur Auxiliary Coordinator

No given station is entitled to any specific frequency (regardless of qualification, power or affiliation).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

When selecting a single-sideband phone transmitting frequency, what minimum frequency separation from a contact in progress should you allow (between suppressed carriers) to minimize interference?
  • Approximately 10 kHz
  • Correct Answer
    Approximately 3 kHz
  • 150 to 500 Hz
  • Approximately 6 kHz

In order of bandwidth requirements: CW = about 100 Hz, RTTY = about 600 Hz, SSB = 2 to 3 kHz, FM = 10 to 20 kHz. Minimum frequency separation: CW = 150 to 500 Hz, RTTY = 250 to 500 Hz, SSB = 3 kHz to 5 kHz.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is a band plan?
  • Correct Answer
    A guideline for using different operating modes within an amateur band
  • A plan of operating schedules within an amateur band published by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
  • A plan devised by a club to best use a frequency band during a contest
  • A guideline for deviating from amateur frequency band allocations

"Band Plans" are published by Amateur organizations to suggest specific modes in specific segments of the band. The idea is to minimize interference and allow interest groups to find one another.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Before transmitting, the first thing you should do is:
  • make an announcement on the frequency indicating that you intend to make a call
  • decrease your receiver's volume
  • Correct Answer
    listen carefully so as not to interrupt communications already in progress
  • ask if the frequency is occupied

First, listen for a little while then ask "Is this frequency in use?" ( QRL? in Morse ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the correct way to call "CQ" when using Morse code?
  • Send the letters "CQ" ten times, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign sent once
  • Send the letters "CQ" over and over
  • Correct Answer
    Send the letters "CQ" three times, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign sent three times
  • Send the letters "CQ" three times, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign sent once

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

How should you answer a routine Morse code "CQ" call?
  • Send your call sign followed by your name, station location and a signal report
  • Correct Answer
    Send the other station's call sign twice, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign twice
  • Send your call sign four times
  • Send the other station's call sign once, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign four times

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

At what speed should a Morse code "CQ" call be transmitted?
  • Correct Answer
    At any speed which you can reliably receive
  • At any speed below 5 w.p.m.
  • At the highest speed your keyer will operate
  • At the highest speed at which you can control the keyer

Any station which answers your call is likely to transmit at a speed similar to yours. Operators frequently find it easier to transmit at higher speed than they can reliably copy.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of the procedural signal "CQ"?
  • Correct Answer
    Calling any station
  • Call on the quarter hour
  • An antenna is being tested
  • Only the station "CQ" should answer

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of the procedural signal "DE"?
  • Correct Answer
    From
  • Received all correctly
  • Calling any station
  • Directional Emissions

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of the procedural signal "K"?
  • Correct Answer
    Any station please reply
  • End of message
  • Called station only transmit
  • All received correctly

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is meant by the term "DX"?
  • Go ahead
  • Best regards
  • Correct Answer
    Distant station
  • Calling any station

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of the term "73"?
  • Love and kisses
  • Go ahead
  • Correct Answer
    Best regards
  • Long distance

"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Which of the following describes full break-in telegraphy (QSK)?
  • An operator must activate a manual send/receive switch before and after every transmission
  • Breaking stations send the Morse code prosign "BK"
  • Correct Answer
    Incoming signals are received between transmitted Morse code dots and dashes
  • Automatic keyers are used to send Morse code instead of hand keys

When a station operates "full break-in", the receiver becomes active IN BETWEEN the transmitted dots and dashes. It permits the other station to interrupt (break-in), for example, when it failed to copy a word.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

When selecting a CW transmitting frequency, what minimum frequency separation from a contact in progress should you allow to minimize interference?
  • 5 to 50 Hz
  • 1 to 3 kHz
  • 3 to 6 kHz
  • Correct Answer
    150 to 500 Hz

In order of bandwidth requirements: CW = about 100 Hz, RTTY = about 600 Hz, SSB = 2 to 3 kHz, FM = 10 to 20 kHz. Minimum frequency separation: CW = 150 to 500 Hz, RTTY = 250 to 500 Hz, SSB = 3 kHz to 5 kHz.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Good Morse telegraphy operators:
  • Correct Answer
    listen to the frequency to make sure that it is not in use before transmitting
  • always give stations a good readability report
  • save time by leaving out spaces between words
  • tune the transmitter using the operating antenna

First, listen for a little while then ask "Is this frequency in use?" ( QRL? in Morse ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What are "RST" signal reports?
  • Correct Answer
    A short way to describe signal reception
  • A short way to describe transmitter power
  • A short way to describe sunspot activity
  • A short way to describe ionospheric conditions

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

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What does "RST" mean in a signal report?
  • Readability, signal speed, tempo
  • Correct Answer
    Readability, signal strength, tone
  • Recovery, signal strength, tempo
  • Recovery, signal speed, tone

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of: "Your signal report is 5 7"?
  • Your signal is readable with considerable difficulty
  • Your signal is perfectly readable with near pure tone
  • Your signal is perfectly readable, but weak
  • Correct Answer
    Your signal is perfectly readable and moderately strong

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of: "Your signal report is 3 3 "?
  • Your signal is unreadable, very weak in strength
  • The station is located at latitude 33 degrees
  • The contact is serial number 33
  • Correct Answer
    Your signal is readable with considerable difficulty and weak in strength

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of: "You are 5 9 plus 20 dB"?
  • Your signal strength has increased by a factor of 100
  • Correct Answer
    You are perfectly readable with a signal strength 20 decibels greater than S 9
  • The bandwidth of your signal is 20 decibels above linearity
  • Repeat your transmission on a frequency 20 kHz higher

The 'S-meter' on a receiver provides a relative indication of received signal strength. S-meters are calibrated at the low end in S units, from S1 to S9. One S unit represents about 6 decibels ( four times the power ). Above a signal strength of S9, readings are in decibels: 10 dB over S9, 20 dB over S9, 30 dB over S9, etc.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

A distant station asks for a signal report on a local repeater you monitor. Which fact affects your assessment?
  • Signal reports are only useful on simplex communications
  • Correct Answer
    The other operator needs to know how well he is received at the repeater, not how well you receive the repeater
  • The repeater gain affects your S-meter reading
  • You need to listen to the repeater input frequency for an accurate signal report

When you listen to the output of a local repeater, signal strength is likely to be full-scale. A distant station may appear noisy or cutting-out at the repeater input. If you report those symptoms, the operator may use more power, reorient his antenna or change location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If the power output of a transmitter is increased by four times, how might a nearby receiver's S-meter reading change?
  • Increase by approximately four S units
  • Decrease by approximately four S units
  • Decrease by approximately one S unit
  • Correct Answer
    Increase by approximately one S unit

The 'S-meter' on a receiver provides a relative indication of received signal strength. S-meters are calibrated at the low end in S units, from S1 to S9. One S unit represents about 6 decibels ( four times the power ). Above a signal strength of S9, readings are in decibels: 10 dB over S9, 20 dB over S9, 30 dB over S9, etc.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

By how many times must the power output of a transmitter be increased to raise the S-meter reading on a nearby receiver from S8 to S9?
  • Correct Answer
    Approximately 4 times
  • Approximately 5 times
  • Approximately 3 times
  • Approximately 2 times

The 'S-meter' on a receiver provides a relative indication of received signal strength. S-meters are calibrated at the low end in S units, from S1 to S9. One S unit represents about 6 decibels ( four times the power ). Above a signal strength of S9, readings are in decibels: 10 dB over S9, 20 dB over S9, 30 dB over S9, etc.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What does "RST 579" mean in a Morse code contact?
  • Your signal is perfectly readable, weak strength, and with perfect tone
  • Your signal is fairly readable, fair strength, and with perfect tone
  • Your signal is barely readable, moderately strong, and with faint ripple
  • Correct Answer
    Your signal is perfectly readable, moderately strong, and with perfect tone

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What does "RST 459" mean in a Morse code contact?
  • Your signal is very readable, very strong, and with perfect tone
  • Your signal is barely readable, very weak, and with perfect tone
  • Your signal is moderately readable, very weak, and with hum on the tone
  • Correct Answer
    Your signal is quite readable, fair strength, and with perfect tone

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of "Your signal report is 1 1"?
  • Your signal is first class in readability and first class in strength
  • Your signal is very readable and very strong
  • Correct Answer
    Your signal is unreadable, and barely perceptible
  • Your signal is 11 dB over S9

"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of the Q signal "QRS"?
  • Radio station location is:
  • Correct Answer
    Send more slowly
  • Interference from static
  • Send "RST" report

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is one meaning of the Q signal "QTH"?
  • Time here is
  • Correct Answer
    My location is
  • Stop sending
  • My name is

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the proper Q signal to use to see if a frequency is in use before transmitting on CW?
  • QRU?
  • QRZ?
  • Correct Answer
    QRL?
  • QRV?

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is one meaning of the Q signal "QSY"?
  • Send faster
  • Send more slowly
  • Correct Answer
    Change frequency
  • Use more power

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the meaning of the Q signal "QSB"?
  • Correct Answer
    Your signal is fading
  • I am busy
  • I have no message
  • A contact is confirmed

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the proper Q signal to ask who is calling you on CW?
  • QRL?
  • QRT?
  • Correct Answer
    QRZ?
  • QSL?

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

The signal "QRM" signifies:
  • Correct Answer
    I am being interfered with
  • I am troubled by static
  • your signals are fading
  • is my transmission being interfered with

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

The signal "QRN" means:
  • I am being interfered with
  • Correct Answer
    I am troubled by static
  • I am busy
  • are you troubled by static

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

The "Q signal" indicating that you want the other station to send slower is:
  • QRN
  • Correct Answer
    QRS
  • QRM
  • QRL

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Who is calling me is denoted by the "Q signal":
  • QRP?
  • QRM?
  • Correct Answer
    QRZ?
  • QRK?

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

The "Q signal" which signifies "I will call you again" is:
  • QRZ
  • QRS
  • QRT
  • Correct Answer
    QRX

Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSB signal fading, QSY change frequency, QTH location.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

When may you use your amateur station to transmit an "SOS" or "MAYDAY"?
  • Only in case of a severe weather watch
  • Correct Answer
    In a life-threatening distress situation
  • Never
  • Only at specific times (at 15 and 30 minutes after the hour)

SOS (Morse) and MAYDAY (voice) are internationally recognized distress signals. Used to request help in a life-threatening situation. False or deceptive distress signals are punishable by law.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you are in contact with another station and you hear an emergency call for help on your frequency, what should you do?
  • Correct Answer
    Immediately stop your contact and acknowledge the emergency call
  • Tell the calling station that the frequency is in use
  • Direct the calling station to the nearest emergency net frequency
  • Call your local police station and inform them of the emergency call

Stations in distress are priority number one, someone's life is at risk. The order of priority is 1) Distress, 2) Emergency and 3) Safety. Acknowledge the station immediately and see how it can be helped. If you cannot provide help, monitor the frequency to ensure help is forthcoming.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the proper distress call to use when operating phone?
  • Say "EMERGENCY" several times
  • Say "HELP" several times
  • Correct Answer
    Say "MAYDAY" several times
  • Say "SOS" several times

SOS (Morse) and MAYDAY (voice) are internationally recognized distress signals. Used to request help in a life-threatening situation. False or deceptive distress signals are punishable by law.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the proper distress call to use when operating CW?
  • Correct Answer
    SOS
  • CQD
  • QRRR
  • MAYDAY

SOS (Morse) and MAYDAY (voice) are internationally recognized distress signals. Used to request help in a life-threatening situation. False or deceptive distress signals are punishable by law.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the proper way to interrupt a repeater conversation to signal a distress call?
  • Correct Answer
    Break-in immediately following the transmission of the active party and state your situation and call sign
  • Say "EMERGENCY" three times
  • Say "SOS," then your call sign
  • Say "HELP" as many times as it takes to get someone to answer

Say your call sign with the words "emergency traffic" during a pause. Repeaters are meant primarily to extend the range of portables and mobiles. You never know when someone else might need the repeater. Be sure to leave pauses in between transmissions. Anyone wanting the repeater may signal his presence by stating his call sign during one such pause.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

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Why is it a good idea to have a way to operate your amateur station without using commercial AC power lines?
  • So you may use your station while mobile
  • Correct Answer
    So you may provide communications in an emergency
  • So you will comply with rules
  • So you may operate in contests where AC power is not allowed

Amateurs have a long history of providing emergency communications during disasters. Charged batteries and rapidly-deployable antennas are useful station accessories.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the most important accessory to have for a hand-held radio in an emergency?
  • An extra antenna
  • A portable amplifier
  • A microphone headset for hands-free operation
  • Correct Answer
    Several sets of charged batteries

Amateurs have a long history of providing emergency communications during disasters. Charged batteries and rapidly-deployable antennas are useful station accessories.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Which type of antenna would be a good choice as part of a portable HF amateur station that could be set up in case of an emergency?
  • A three-element Yagi
  • A three-element quad
  • Correct Answer
    A dipole
  • A parabolic dish

Amateurs have a long history of providing emergency communications during disasters. Charged batteries and rapidly-deployable antennas are useful station accessories.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you are communicating with another amateur station and hear a station in distress break in, what should you do?
  • Correct Answer
    Acknowledge the station in distress and determine its location and what assistance may be needed
  • Continue your communication because you were on frequency first
  • Change to a different frequency so the station in distress may have a clear channel to call for assistance
  • Immediately cease all transmissions because stations in distress have emergency rights to the frequency

Stations in distress are priority number one, someone's life is at risk. The order of priority is 1) Distress, 2) Emergency and 3) Safety. Acknowledge the station immediately and see how it can be helped. If you cannot provide help, monitor the frequency to ensure help is forthcoming.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

In order of priority, a distress message comes before:
  • Correct Answer
    an emergency message
  • no other messages
  • a government priority message
  • a safety message

Stations in distress are priority number one, someone's life is at risk. The order of priority is 1) Distress, 2) Emergency and 3) Safety. Acknowledge the station immediately and see how it can be helped. If you cannot provide help, monitor the frequency to ensure help is forthcoming.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

If you hear distress traffic and are unable to render direct assistance you should:
  • enter the details in the log book and take no further action
  • take no action
  • tell all other stations to cease transmitting
  • Correct Answer
    contact authorities and then maintain watch until you are certain that assistance will be forthcoming

Stations in distress are priority number one, someone's life is at risk. The order of priority is 1) Distress, 2) Emergency and 3) Safety. Acknowledge the station immediately and see how it can be helped. If you cannot provide help, monitor the frequency to ensure help is forthcoming.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is a "QSL card"?
  • A Notice of Violation from Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
  • A postcard reminding you when your certificate will expire
  • A letter or postcard from an amateur pen pal
  • Correct Answer
    A written proof of communication between two amateurs

A 'QSL Card' is a postcard-sized confirmation of a radio contact.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is an azimuthal map?
  • A map projection centered on the North Pole
  • A map that shows the angle at which an amateur satellite crosses the equator
  • A map that shows the number of degrees longitude that an amateur satellite appears to move westward at the equator
  • Correct Answer
    A map projection centered on a particular location, used to determine the shortest path between points on the Earth's surface

An 'Azimuthal Map' centered on your location is convenient to determine beam headings (i.e., where to orient a directional antenna) for the shortest distance to a given point on Earth ( the 'Short Path' ). The 'Long Path' is precisely 180 degrees in the opposite direction ( sometimes propagation conditions provide a path around the globe to a particular location ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What is the most useful type of map to use when orienting a directional HF antenna toward a distant station?
  • Topographical
  • Correct Answer
    Azimuthal
  • Mercator
  • Polar projection

An 'Azimuthal Map' centered on your location is convenient to determine beam headings (i.e., where to orient a directional antenna) for the shortest distance to a given point on Earth ( the 'Short Path' ). The 'Long Path' is precisely 180 degrees in the opposite direction ( sometimes propagation conditions provide a path around the globe to a particular location ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

A directional antenna pointed in the long-path direction to another station is generally oriented how many degrees from its short-path heading?
  • 90 degrees
  • 270 degrees
  • Correct Answer
    180 degrees
  • 45 degrees

An 'Azimuthal Map' centered on your location is convenient to determine beam headings (i.e., where to orient a directional antenna) for the shortest distance to a given point on Earth ( the 'Short Path' ). The 'Long Path' is precisely 180 degrees in the opposite direction ( sometimes propagation conditions provide a path around the globe to a particular location ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

What method is used by radio amateurs to provide written proof of communication between two amateur stations?
  • A radiogram sent over the CW traffic net
  • A packet message
  • Correct Answer
    A signed post card listing contact date, time, frequency, mode and power, called a "QSL card"
  • A two-page letter containing a photograph of the operator

A 'QSL Card' is a postcard-sized confirmation of a radio contact.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

You hear other local stations talking to radio amateurs in New Zealand but you don't hear those stations with your beam aimed on the normal compass bearing to New Zealand. What should you try?
  • Point your antenna toward Newington, Connecticut
  • Point your antenna to the north
  • Point your antenna to the south
  • Correct Answer
    Point your beam 180 degrees away from that bearing and listen for the stations arriving on the "long-path"

An 'Azimuthal Map' centered on your location is convenient to determine beam headings (i.e., where to orient a directional antenna) for the shortest distance to a given point on Earth ( the 'Short Path' ). The 'Long Path' is precisely 180 degrees in the opposite direction ( sometimes propagation conditions provide a path around the globe to a particular location ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Which statement about recording all contacts and unanswered "CQ calls" in a station logbook or computer log is not correct?
  • A well-kept log preserves your fondest amateur radio memories for years
  • A log is important for handling neighbour interference complaints
  • Correct Answer
    A logbook is required by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
  • A log is important for recording contacts for operating awards

key words: NOT CORRECT. A logbook is no longer a legal requirement.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Why would it be useful to have an azimuthal world map centred on the location of your station?
  • Because it looks impressive
  • Because it shows the angle at which an amateur satellite crosses the equator
  • Because it shows the number of degrees longitude that an amateur satellite moves west
  • Correct Answer
    Because it shows the compass bearing from your station to any place on Earth, for antenna planning and pointing

An 'Azimuthal Map' centered on your location is convenient to determine beam headings (i.e., where to orient a directional antenna) for the shortest distance to a given point on Earth ( the 'Short Path' ). The 'Long Path' is precisely 180 degrees in the opposite direction ( sometimes propagation conditions provide a path around the globe to a particular location ).

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

Station logs and confirmation (QSL) cards are always kept in UTC (Universal Time Coordinated). Where is that time based?
  • Correct Answer
    Greenwich, England
  • Geneva, Switzerland
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Newington, Connecticut

"Coordinated Universal Time", the international time standard. "UTC" is not a true acronym; it is a variant of Universal Time, UT, and has a modifier C (for "coordinated") appended to it. Has replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is mean solar time at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England, which by convention is at 0 degrees geographic longitude.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

When referring to contacts in the station log, what do the letters UTC mean?
  • Unlisted Telephone Call
  • Unlimited Time Capsule
  • Correct Answer
    Universal Time Coordinated (formerly Greenwich Mean Time - GMT)
  • Universal Time Constant

"Coordinated Universal Time", the international time standard. "UTC" is not a true acronym; it is a variant of Universal Time, UT, and has a modifier C (for "coordinated") appended to it. Has replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is mean solar time at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England, which by convention is at 0 degrees geographic longitude.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

To set your station clock accurately to UTC, you could receive the most accurate time off the air from _______?
  • A non-directional beacon station
  • Your local television station
  • Your local radio station
  • Correct Answer
    CHU, WWV or WWVH

CHU [Ottawa, Ontario], WWV [Fort Collins, CO] and WWVH [Kauai, HI] are stations continually broadcasting highly accurate time information.

Original copyright; explanations transcribed with permission from Francois VE2AAY, author of the ExHAMiner exam simulator. Do not copy without his permission.

Tags: none

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