or
Technician Class (before Jul 1, 2014)
Subelement T1
FCC Rules, descriptions and definitions for the amateur radio service, operator and station license responsibilities
Section T1D
Authorized and prohibited transmissions
With which countries are FCC-licensed amateur stations prohibited from exchanging communications?
Any country whose administration has notified the ITU that it objects to such communications
• Any country whose administration has notified the United Nations that it objects to such communications
• Any country engaged in hostilities with another country
• Any country in violation of the War Powers Act of 1934

International communication guidelines are intended to be permissive. Unless a country has notified the International Telecommunications Union, a United Nations agency, that it objects to FCC-licensed amateur stations exchanging communications with its citizens you may do so.

As of June 7, 2022, according to the FCC, there were "no banned countries". In other words, it is currently permissible for an FCC-licensed amateur to communicate with all countries.

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On which of the following occasions may an FCC-licensed amateur station exchange messages with a U.S. military station?
During an Armed Forces Day Communications Test
• During a Memorial Day Celebration
• During an Independence Day celebration
• During a propagation test

Historically, Amateur Radio frequencies are shared with or adjacent to military radio frequencies. In order to test the capability of Amateur Radio operators to coordinate radio communications with the military communicating on those frequencies is allowed on an Armed Forces Day Communications test.

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When is the transmission of codes or ciphers allowed to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station?
• Only during contests
• Only when operating mobile
Only when transmitting control commands to space stations or radio control craft
• Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used

Control commands may need ciphers or codes to prevent unauthorized users from controlling a radio control craft or space station; otherwise, you are never allowed to hide the meaning of a message.

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What is the only time an amateur station is authorized to transmit music?
When incidental to an authorized retransmission of manned spacecraft communications
• When the music produces no spurious emissions
• When the purpose is to interfere with an illegal transmission
• When the music is transmitted above 1280 MHz

The Amateur Radio service may retransmit the audio from manned spacecraft (such as the international space station). They often use music in that audio; because this music is incidental and in order to allow retransmission of the full program from the spacecraft an exception has been made to the "no music" rule for this purpose.

There is no other time when an amateur station is authorized to transmit music; this doesn't mean that you'll be prosecuted for transmitting when there is music in the background (particularly if you're helping with a parade or other community event where it is unavoidable) but you should avoid it when practical and it is never permissible to intentionally transmit snippets of music (of any length).

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When may amateur radio operators use their stations to notify other amateurs of the availability of equipment for sale or trade?
When the equipment is normally used in an amateur station and such activity is not conducted on a regular basis
• When the asking price is \$100.00 or less
• When the asking price is less than its appraised value
• When the equipment is not the personal property of either the station licensee or the control operator or their close relatives

While it is illegal to use Amateur Radio for profit, a limited exception is made to allow operators to offer equipment for sale with a few restrictions:

• Only on an occasional basis. If you have a stack of equipment you may offer it for sale, but you can't make a living selling salvaged ham radio equipment.

• Only to sell equipment that is part of a normal amateur station; it shouldn't be used to sell ipads, computers, other non-radio related equipment, etc.

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Which of the following types of transmissions are prohibited?
Transmissions that contain obscene or indecent words or language
• Transmissions to establish one-way communications
• Transmissions to establish model aircraft control
• Transmissions for third party communications

Indecent or obscene words and language are always prohibited on the Amateur Radio service; this represents one of the biggest differences in the "personality" of the Ham Radio service compared to other non-licensed services such as Citizen's Band (CB) and Family Radio Service (FRS).

What specifically "obscene or indecent words or language" means is left somewhat up to the interpretation of the operator; There may be a list somewhere of what the FCC considers obscene or indecent but it is generally accepted to mean any form of profanity or language that may be inappropriate for children. Good rule of thumb here is to only use language that you would be comfortable with in "polite company".

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When is an amateur station authorized to automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur stations?
• When the signals are from an auxiliary, beacon, or Earth station
When the signals are from an auxiliary, repeater, or space station
• When the signals are from a beacon, repeater, or space station
• When the signals are from an Earth, repeater, or space station

Auxiliary stations are defined as An amateur station, other than a message forwarding system, that is transmitting communications point-to-point within a system of cooperating amateur stations [97.3(a)(7)].

Repeater stations are defined as an amateur station that simultaneously retransmits the transmission of another amateur station on a different channel or channels [97.3(a)(39)]

Stations may automatically retransmit signals from either of these types of stations as well as signals from the space station, which is a concession designed to make it possible for stations to listen to space station transmissions and broadcasts that may otherwise be limited to only those with special equipment.

Beacon signals are only broadcasts and do not need to be retransmitted and "earth station" would be redundant with "repeater" since a repeater is an earth station, so the three distractors can be easily eliminated.

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When may the control operator of an amateur station receive compensation for operating the station?
• When engaging in communications on behalf of their employer
When the communication is incidental to classroom instruction at an educational institution
• When notifying other amateur operators of the availability for sale or trade of apparatus

Amateur radio operators are prohibited from receiving compensation for their services. This exception allows a teacher to use a ham radio as part of their classroom instruction without being in violation of this prohibition in a legal sense.

In this case, the instructor is not being compensated directly for use of the radio but is being compensated for their duties as an instructor. Therefore, acting as a control operator for the amateur radio station cannot be a major part of their job, but must be incidental to other instruction.

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Under which of the following circumstances are amateur stations authorized to transmit signals related to broadcasting, program production, or news gathering, assuming no other means is available?
Only where such communications directly relate to the immediate safety of human life or protection of property
• Only when broadcasting communications to or from the space shuttle.
• Only where noncommercial programming is gathered and supplied exclusively to the National Public Radio network
• Only when using amateur repeaters linked to the Internet

The basic rule of thumb is that anything is allowed in an emergency if there is not a better way to solve the problem. Generally, amateur radio bands should be reserved for actual emergency communications during an emergency but if there is no other way to get news and such out during an emergency then Amateur Radio may be used for this purpose.

Other than in an emergency, there is never a time when broadcasts should be made over Amateur Radio; the only potentially confusing distractor on this question is the one relating to the space shuttle because it is allowed to retransmit transmissions from a space station; however, this asks about signals related to broadcasting, program production, or news gathering which is not the same as retransmitting a simple transmission from a space station intended for that purpose.

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What is the meaning of the term broadcasting in the FCC rules for the amateur services?
• Two-way transmissions by amateur stations
• Transmission of music
• Transmission of messages directed only to amateur operators
Transmissions intended for reception by the general public

Broadcasting is a term that is sometimes a bit touchy in the amateur radio community; FM radio stations broadcast radio programs and music to the general public; this is broadcasting, because there is never an expected response or a specific audience. Sometimes in Amateur Radio parts of a program are transmitted over amateur frequencies, but never as a regular "show", and never intended for the general public -- intended instead for ham radio operators. In addition, the rule of identifying every 10 minutes applies.

The primary difference between a broadcast and any other transmission is that a transmission has a specific audience -- even if it's "all amateur radio operators in the area". As an additional note, such transmissions (intended for all listening amateur radio operators) are usually prefixed with "QST" often repeated 3 times to indicate a general announcement for all operators.

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Which of the following types of communications are permitted in the Amateur Radio Service?
Brief transmissions to make station adjustments
• Retransmission of entertainment programming from a commercial radio or TV station
• Retransmission of entertainment material from a public radio or TV station
• Communications on a regular basis that could reasonably be furnished alternatively through other radio services

Amateur Radio is intended for communicating between stations, hobbyists, learning, establishing international goodwill, etc; it is not intended to enable broadcasting to the general public. For that reason, retransmission of entertainment programming or material from any regular TV or Radio station is not allowed -- if it were, we soon would no longer have any room left in the amateur bands because people would be using it to retransmit TV and Radio programs all the time!

For the same reason, communications that are more appropriate to ("could reasonably be furnished alternatively through") another radio service is not permitted.

However, you are allowed to make brief transmissions to help adjust your station -- for example, it's pretty difficult to adjust an antenna tuner to get good SWR without making any test transmissions to measure your SWR!

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