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Subelement G2
Operating Procedures
Section G2C
CW operating procedures and procedural signals; Q signals and common abbreviations: full break in
Which of the following describes full break-in telegraphy (QSK)?
  • Breaking stations send the Morse code prosign BK
  • Automatic keyers are used to send Morse code instead of hand keys
  • An operator must activate a manual send/receive switch before and after every transmission
  • Correct Answer
    Transmitting stations can receive between code characters and elements

One way to send a CW or data transmission is to use full break-in telegraphy (QSK). The abbreviation QSK is used as Q code for "Can you hear me between your signals?" or "I can hear you between my signals." Using this method allows the transmitting stations to receive returning signals between code characters and elements. This is useful for the receiving station to be able to "break-in" during a long transmission and ask about a mis-spelled word or other issue with your transmission.

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Tags: q signals morse code arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What should you do if a CW station sends "QRS"?
  • Correct Answer
    Send slower
  • Change frequency
  • Increase your power
  • Repeat everything twice

The Q signal "QRS" is a code for "Send more slowly". If terminated with a question mark, it is the question should I send more slowly?.

A few mnemonics:

  • (R)educe (S)peed
  • (R)eally (S)lowly
  • (R)eluctant (S)nail
  • (R)ight (S)luggish
  • (R)alentissez (S)'il vous plaĆ®t (French for "please slow down")

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Tags: morse code q signals arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What does it mean when a CW operator sends "KN" at the end of a transmission?
  • Listening for novice stations
  • Operating full break-in
  • Correct Answer
    Listening only for a specific station or stations
  • Closing station now

CW operators use a multitude of abbreviations or proceedural signals called prosigns to help shorten their communications, as every character must be keyed in. The abbreviation or CW prosign "KN" placed at the end of a transmission means that the transmitting operator is listening for only a specific station or stations.

Note: One easy way to think of this code is that someone using "KN" is looking for a station that they KNow, not just anyone.

For more info see Wikipedia: Prosigns for Morse Code

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Tags: morse code operating procedures arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What does the Q signal "QRL?" mean?
  • "Will you keep the frequency clear?"
  • "Are you operating full break-in" or "Can you operate full break-in?"
  • "Are you listening only for a specific station?"
  • Correct Answer
    "Are you busy?", or "Is this frequency in use?"

QRL? is sometimes used to survey whether or not a frequency you'd like to communicate on is already in use for a different contact.

Mnemonics:

  • (R)ampant (EL)ocution
  • (R)esident (L)ecturer
  • (R)equesting (L)ine

More information: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_code

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Tags: arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What is the best speed to use when answering a CQ in Morse code?
  • The fastest speed at which you are comfortable copying
  • Correct Answer
    The speed at which the CQ was sent
  • A slow speed until contact is established
  • At the standard calling speed of 5 wpm

(B). CW is a great means of communicating on the amateur airways, but it does require practice and experience to key in the proper codes at higher speeds and decode the messages that are received. Amateurs should always practice courtesy in their communications. Receiving a "CQ" that is sent at a slow key rate is a good indicator that the other operator may not be as experienced with keying/decoding. For this reason it is always best to match your keying speed with the speed at which the CQ was sent. Then both parties may enjoy the transmission without pressure.

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Tags: operating procedures morse code best practices arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What does the term "zero beat" mean in CW operation?
  • Matching the speed of the transmitting station
  • Operating split to avoid interference on frequency
  • Sending without error
  • Correct Answer
    Matching your transmit frequency to the frequency of a received signal

(D). When operating in CW mode, it is best to match up your transmit frequency to the frequency of the received signal. This is called "zero beating" the signal. It means that both stations are using the same frequency/wavelength and not competing nearby wave forms. This allows for the best clarity of signal transmission and reception between the two stations.

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Tags: definitions morse code arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

When sending CW, what does a "C" mean when added to the RST report?
  • Correct Answer
    Chirpy or unstable signal
  • Report was read from an S meter rather than estimated
  • 100 percent copy
  • Key clicks

(A). The RST report refers to the Readability, Signal Strength, and Tone qualities of a given transmission. Giving the other station an RST report can be very helpful, as it lets them know that either their signal is coming through 599 (perfectly readable, Extremely strong signal, pure tone) or that at lower numbers, such as 353C, that they may have a problem with their transmission. The suffix code "C" when added to the RST report means that the signal received is Chirpy or unstable.

Note: Remember that the RST report is about signal quality, and that "C" stands for "Chirpy"

For more info see Wikipedia: RST Code

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Tags: morse code operating procedures arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What prosign is sent to indicate the end of a formal message when using CW?
  • SK
  • BK
  • Correct Answer
    AR
  • KN

Prosigns (procedural signs) are common abbreviations that help send shorter, more efficient transmissions.

The prosign AR indicates the end of a formal message. It can also mean "new page" or "new message". According to wikipedia the use of the AR prosign is superfluous in informal Morse conversations. (in other words, unnecessary / extra beyond what is needed).

This is a bit of a trick question, because the distractors are all used in informal Morse conversations as turnover indicators ending a transmission (BK: back to you, KN: over to you, SK: end of contact).

This question is asking about formal messages, not informal conversations.

Mnemonics:

  • (A)cknowledging (R)eceipt
  • (A)ll is (R)eceived
  • (A)u (R)evoir - "see you later" in French

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Tags: morse code operating procedures arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What does the Q signal "QSL" mean?
  • Send slower
  • We have already confirmed by card
  • Correct Answer
    I acknowledge receipt
  • We have worked before

Q codes are a system of standard abbreviations for use in CW and other communications. They're used for common statements/questions involving CQ operation or transmissions.

Be careful to avoid the distractors that are confusing the Q signal QSL ("I acknowledge receipt") with the idea of QSL cards, which are postcards that amateur operators often use to confirm a contact.

A mnemonic for QSL is Si, lo tengo, Spanish for "yes, I got it". Or perhaps the first and last letters in successful, as in "your communication was successful".

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Tags: morse code q signals arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What does the Q signal "QRN" mean?
  • Send more slowly
  • Correct Answer
    I am troubled by static
  • Zero beat my signal
  • Stop sending

HF operators will often call QRN or QRM during conditions where the signal is being interrupted or otherwise compromised by interference. In Phone modes the phrases used are often "Q R Mary" or "Q R Nancy."

Although many operators will use the two designations interchangeably (or more often only use QRM), an easy way to remember the distinction is:

QRN: Natural Interference such as atmospheric Noise or static produced by solar storms or lightning

QRM: Man-Made Interference such as interference by signals near in frequency, stations in close proximity, or interference by electric equipment.

For a complete list of "Q" codes, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_code under the heading "Amateur Radio."

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Tags: arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

What does the Q signal "QRV" mean?
  • You are sending too fast
  • There is interference on the frequency
  • I am quitting for the day
  • Correct Answer
    I am ready to receive messages

The Q code QRV is a shorthand that CW operators use to indicate that they're ready to receive messages.


A mnemonic:
Notice that phonetically the first and last sounds in (R)eady to recei(V)e are RV.

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Tags: morse code q signals arrl chapter 2 arrl module 4

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