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Subelement T4
Amateur radio practices and station set up
Section T4A
Station setup: connecting microphones; reducing unwanted emissions; power source; connecting a computer; RF grounding; connecting digital equipment; connecting an SWR meter
Which of the following is true concerning the microphone connectors on amateur transceivers?
  • All transceivers use the same microphone connector type
  • Some connectors include push-to-talk and voltages for powering the microphone
  • All transceivers using the same connector type are wired identically
  • Un-keyed connectors allow any microphone to be connected

With this question you may need to identify the incorrect answers in order to identify the correct one. Watch out for "ALL" in statements since it is uncommon for all radios to work the same. For this question:

TRUE - The correct answer is that "Some" microphone connectors have a push-to-talk button and voltages for powering the microphone. Some modern microphones are quite sophisticated with keypads, back-lighting and more.

FALSE - **All **transceivers DO NOT use the same connector on their microphones, you generally have to have a specific microphone for each model or brand of radio.

FALSE - **All **transceivers using the same connector type ARE NOT neccessarily wired identically.

FALSE - This statement is false: "Un-keyed connectors allow any microphone to be connected."

Last edited by pyrotecman. Register to edit

Tags: electronics radio operation arrl chapter 5 arrl module 11

How might a computer be used as part of an amateur radio station?
  • For logging contacts and contact information
  • For sending and/or receiving CW
  • For generating and decoding digital signals
  • All of these choices are correct

Computers are used for logging call signs (contacts) and contact information (like band, mode, and frequency).

Computers can send and receive CW (Morse Code). Besides Morse, there are other digital modes that computers can generate and decode, including keyboard-to-keyboard modes like PSK31 and RTTY.

Last edited by k6yxh. Register to edit

Tags: arrl chapter 5 arrl module 11

Which is a good reason to use a regulated power supply for communications equipment?
  • It prevents voltage fluctuations from reaching sensitive circuits
  • A regulated power supply has FCC approval
  • A fuse or circuit breaker regulates the power
  • Power consumption is independent of load

Here are some facts to help you get this technical question right.

A regulated power supply regulates the output voltage so that it remains at a constant voltage regardless of nominal voltage changes in the mains AC power or when the load increased as you transmit. Radios do have sensitive circuits as well since they have to receive very weak radio signal or small audio signals from the microphone.

A regulated power supply will also prevent "hum" from the AC mains that is a rather common issue with un-regulated power supplies.

The detractor questions could use some comments to let you know why they are incorrect.

Detractor: A fuse or circuit breaker will open when an overload occurs and does not regulate power.

Detractor: Power supplies do not have to have FCC approval. You may desire a U.L. or other safety approval rating.

Detractor: Power consumption is very much dependant upon the load. If the load current increased the power will increase.

Last edited by bdengle32@yahoo.com. Register to edit

Tags: electronics dc power radio components arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

Where must a filter be installed to reduce harmonic emissions from your station?
  • Between the transmitter and the antenna
  • Between the receiver and the transmitter
  • At the station power supply
  • At the microphone

By process of elimination and then confirmation:

A CW (Morse-code) transmitter does not necessarily even have a microphone, so "At the microphone" can be eliminated.

"Emissions" implies OUTPUT from a transmitter, and since transmitter outputs are NEVER (except accidentally) connected to receivers or power supplies, "Between the receiver and the transmitter" and "At the station power supply" can be eliminated.

This leaves "Between the transmitter and the antenna", but to further confirm this choice, transmitter outputs ARE connected to antennas. Transmitters are not normally modified, so the filter is "probably" connected to the transmitter output. Once an emission leaves an antenna, it is no longer subject to filtering (at least not at the transmitting end), so the filter MUST be connected BEFORE the antenna.

Therefore it must be BETWEEN the transmitter and the antenna.

Last edited by hly8j. Register to edit

Tags: antenna filters troubleshooting noise and interference arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

Where should an in-line SWR meter be connected to monitor the standing wave ratio of the station antenna system?
  • In series with the feed line, between the transmitter and antenna
  • In series with the station's ground
  • In parallel with the push-to-talk line and the antenna
  • In series with the power supply cable, as close as possible to the radio

Since the SWR (standing wave ratio) has to do with the quality of the radio frequency signal's match between the impedance of the input to the output, it makes no sense to put it in the station's ground, or push-to-talk line, or in the power supply cable. There might be interesting things to measure in those places, but not with an SWR meter.

Typically, an SWR meter is placed close to the transmitter, so you can tell if the antenna system (antenna and transmission line) is well matched to your transmitter. So it goes in series with the feed line, between the transmitter and antenna.

Last edited by shiv_. Register to edit

Tags: arrl chapter 4 arrl module 10

Which of the following would be connected between a transceiver and computer in a packet radio station?
  • Transmatch
  • Mixer
  • Terminal node controller
  • Antenna

HAM radio can transmit data as well as our voice conversations. Your computer can be connected to your radio that normally only transmits your voice through a device that converts the digital data into an audio signal that can be transmitted over the radio and receive the signal received by the radio and converts it back to a digital data stream for the computer. This original text messaging system is called packet radio because each text message is sent as a "packet" of data from one radio to one or more receiving radios.

The device that interfaces the computer to the radio is called a "Terminal node controller". Before we all had computers the device that was used to enter and send a user's text was called a terminal, thus the name of this device.

Last edited by dick1952. Register to edit

Tags: digital modes radio operation arrl chapter 5 arrl module 11

How is a computer's sound card used when conducting digital communications using a computer?
  • The sound card communicates between the computer CPU and the video display
  • The sound card records the audio frequency for video display
  • The sound card provides audio to the microphone input and converts received audio to digital form
  • All of these choices are correct

"Sound Card Packet" is when your computer basically acts as a TNC (Terminal Node Controller); you connect the audio out of the computer to your radio's microphone input and the receive audio from the radio into the line in port on your computer; The computer then listens to the audio and converts it to digital form and when it needs to transmit the sound card generates the tones that the TNC (similar to a modem) would have produced.

The other choices all involve video display, which is not relevant to sound cards.

Last edited by trippinbilly. Register to edit

Tags: digital modes radio operation arrl chapter 5 arrl module 11

Which type of conductor is best to use for RF grounding?
  • Round stranded wire
  • Round copper-clad steel wire
  • Twisted-pair cable
  • Flat strap

A good RF ground conductor to go from your radio gear to an Earth ground is a Flat strap. The width of the flat strap reduces inductance in the conductor and thus is a good ground conductor.

Last edited by geoffpetersen. Register to edit

Tags: electronics grounding arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

Which of the following could you use to cure distorted audio caused by RF current flowing on the shield of a microphone cable?
  • Band-pass filter
  • Low-pass filter
  • Preamplifier
  • Ferrite choke

A Ferrite Choke can be placed on a cable to reduce current flow conducted on the shield of audio (and power) cables.

The grey tubes or clamp on ferrite devices add inductance to the cable to block the common mode RF energy that may leak from the radio onto the cables attached to the radio.

Last edited by bdengle32@yahoo.com. Register to edit

Tags: radio waves filters troubleshooting noise and interference arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

What is the source of a high-pitched whine that varies with engine speed in a mobile transceiver's receive audio?
  • The ignition system
  • The alternator
  • The electric fuel pump
  • Anti-lock braking system controllers

The alternator in your vehicle is an AC generator that is then rectified to produce the DC voltage to charge the battery and run the vehicle's electrical system. It generates a rather high frequency AC signal that can have audio frequency components that can get into the radio's audio amplifier. Sometimes this is because of a weak battery or the design of the electrical system.

Fortunately you can filter out this whine with a 12 Volt power line filter.

Last edited by kb1fyr. Register to edit

Tags: troubleshooting mobile operation noise and interference arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

Where should the negative return connection of a mobile transceiver's power cable be connected?
  • At the battery or engine block ground strap
  • At the antenna mount
  • To any metal part of the vehicle
  • Through the transceiver's mounting bracket

A mobile transceiver can draw many Amperes of current when transmitting. That current needs to come directly from the battery. Using another electrical path could reduce the current available and hinder the tranceiver's performance.

Last edited by fireglow. Register to edit

Tags: dc power batteries grounding arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

What could be happening if another operator reports a variable high-pitched whine on the audio from your mobile transmitter?
  • Your microphone is picking up noise from an open window
  • You have the volume on your receiver set too high
  • You need to adjust your squelch control
  • Noise on the vehicle's electrical system is being transmitted along with your speech audio

The key word in the question is "mobile transmitter" which means a transciever in your vehicle. The alternator of your vehicle can generate noise that can tag along with the signal transmitted by your radio. Sometimes the whine varies with the RPM of the engine. The best way to prevent this interference is to put filters on the DC power line going to the transceiver.

Last edited by aust. Register to edit

Tags: troubleshooting noise and interference mobile operation arrl chapter 5 arrl module 12

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