Login or Register for FREE!
Subelement T8
Modulation modes: amateur satellite operation; operating activities; non-voice communications
Section T8A
Modulation modes: bandwidth of various signals; choice of emission type
Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation?
  • Spread-spectrum
  • Packet radio
  • Correct Answer
    Single sideband
  • Phase shift keying

Single Sideband is commonly used for voice on HF. It is amplitude modulation (AM) with the carrier and one sideband removed. This halves the required bandwidth and saves the large amount of power that would otherwise go into the carrier. This makes SSB much more effective than conventional AM over long distances on crowded bands with limited transmitter power.

Spread-spectrum is not itself a form of modulation, but a family of techniques that spread a (usually already modulated) signal over a wide range of frequencies to reduce interference, tolerate multipath, avoid detection, etc.

Packet Radio uses various types of modulation, but is not itself a form of modulation.

Phase Shift Keying is a digital modulation mode that selects one of a set of carrier phases. One specific form of PSK, binary PSK, can be seen as a special form of amplitude modulation with amplitudes +1 and -1, but SSB is the better answer to this question.

Last edited by karn@ka9q.net. Register to edit

Tags: ssb amplitude modulation arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

What type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions?
  • Correct Answer
  • SSB
  • AM
  • Spread Spectrum

Since packet radio benefits from good bandwidth and minimal audio amplitude variations, both of which are advantages of FM; and because FM is an allowed modulation method on VHF, FM is the most commonly used modulation for packet.

Last edited by spuder. Register to edit

Tags: frequency modulation digital modes vhf arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

Which type of voice mode is most often used for long-distance (weak signal) contacts on the VHF and UHF bands?
  • FM
  • DRM
  • Correct Answer
  • PM

The listed choices are: Frequency Modulation (FM), Single Side-Band (SSB), Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM), and Phase Modulation (PM). Each has its advantages and disadvantages, but SSB usually requires the least bandwidth and power for long-distance and weak signal contacts.

While FM is widely used for local simplex and repeated VHF/UHF voice, the same "capture" or "quieting" effect that works so well on strong signals causes it to perform worse than SSB on weak signals.

Phase Modulation (PM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) are closely related; in fact, what hams call FM is really PM.

Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is used for shortwave broadcasting. Similar methods are now being used experimentally for voice on the HF and other amateur bands, and may gain wider use in the future.

Last edited by karn@ka9q.net. Register to edit

Tags: ssb uhf vhf arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

Which type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters?
  • AM
  • SSB
  • PSK
  • Correct Answer

FM (Frequency Modulation) is the same modulation used by the FM radio in your car, which makes it easier to remember. Note that regular FM radio broadcast stations (music, talk radio, etc) use what is commonly known as Wide FM with a 200 kHz bandwidth, whereas ham radio generally uses Narrow FM which uses about 15-20kHz.

Strictly speaking, what hams call FM is actually PM (Phase Modulation), which is very closely related to FM, differing only in their audio frequency responses. PM is FM with +6dB/octave pre-emphasis and -6 dB/octave de-emphasis.

Last edited by karn@ka9q.net. Register to edit

Tags: vhf uhf frequency modulation arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

Which of the following types of emission has the narrowest bandwidth?
  • FM voice
  • SSB voice
  • Correct Answer
  • Slow-scan TV

CW or "Continuous Wave" is also known as "Morse Code". This consists of turning the RF carrier "on" and "off" with Morse code. Since the information transmitted is nothing more than "on" vs "off" it requires very little bandwidth.

Tip: CW is the shortest answer.

Last edited by aftonshearer. Register to edit

Tags: morse code bandwidth radio operation arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF single-sideband communications?
  • Correct Answer
    Upper sideband
  • Lower sideband
  • Suppressed sideband
  • Inverted sideband

By convention, Upper Sideband (USB) is used for SSB on 10MHz HF and up -- including VHF and UHF bands. You will need to just remember upper sideband for the upper-frequency bands, 10MHz and up.

The only exception is that LSB is transmitted to amateur satellites with frequency inverting linear transponders. The transponder converts LSB on the uplink to USB on the downlink.

Last edited by karn@ka9q.net. Register to edit

Tags: 10 meter ssb vhf hf uhf arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

What is the primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions?
  • SSB signals are easier to tune
  • SSB signals are less susceptible to interference
  • Correct Answer
    SSB signals have narrower bandwidth
  • All of these choices are correct

AM has two mirror-image sidebands, upper and lower, and a carrier that contains a lot of power but no information. Single sideband (SSB) omits the carrier and one sideband, putting all of its power into the remaining (single) sideband. This halves the signal bandwidth and makes much more efficient use of transmitted power.

The narrower bandwidth does make SSB less susceptible to interference in the sense that it's a smaller target. But it is still susceptible to interference that lands within its smaller bandwidth. What's more important is that its narrower bandwidth means it causes less interference to other users of the band.

SSB is harder to tune than either AM or FM, whose carriers provide a frequency "reference" to the receiver. Without a carrier to go on, the SSB receiver must provide an accurate one of its own by careful local tuning.

Last edited by kd7bbc. Register to edit

Tags: ssb frequency modulation bandwidth arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

What is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal?
  • 1 kHz
  • Correct Answer
    3 kHz
  • 6 kHz
  • 15 kHz

Single Sideband is a modified form of Amplitude Modulation (AM). Because AM has two mirror-image sidebands, it normally uses twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal. Because single sideband only transmits one sideband, its radio frequency bandwidth is equal to the bandwidth of the modulating signal. SSB also omits the AM carrier, but it does not consume any radio bandwidth.

A traditional communications-grade voice signal extends from about 300 to 3300 Hz, with newer transceivers using digital signal processing (DSP) extending the low end to about 100 Hz to improve fidelity. So the radio bandwidth of a SSB signal is very approximately 3 kHz.

As a memory aid, note that SSB has 3 letters, which is the same number of kHz as the bandwidth, 3 kHz.

Last edited by benmarwick. Register to edit

Tags: bandwidth ssb hf arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal?
  • Less than 500 Hz
  • About 150 kHz
  • Correct Answer
    Between 10 and 15 kHz
  • Between 50 and 125 kHz

According to Carson's Rule, the approximate bandwidth of an FM signal is equal to twice the sum of the highest modulating frequency and the deviation. For standard ham FM, this is 2 * (3 kHz + 5 kHz) = 16 kHz. If you transmit on 146.520MHz and listen on 146.525MHz you will likely still hear the signal. If you can't (or barely can) then the bandwidth is closer to 5kHz -- (standard for FRS radios, for example). The further away you get the wider the bandwidth would need to be for you to still be able to hear it.

Remember that if the bandwidth is 5kHz you will only hear them at the transmit frequency +/- 2.5kHz, because the transmit frequency is the middle so half will be above and half below. Most amateur FM uses +/- 5 kHz deviation but some support "half deviation" mode which uses +/- 2.5 kHz.

Last edited by ronitsama. Register to edit

Tags: frequency modulation vhf repeater arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

What is the typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band?
  • More than 10 MHz
  • Correct Answer
    About 6 MHz
  • About 3 MHz
  • About 1 MHz

Analog fast-scan TV transmissions use a lot of bandwidth compared to voice and other modes. When US amateurs use the (now obsolete) US NTSC analog TV broadcast standard, the bandwidth is the same as a US TV channel: 6 MHz.

Last edited by karn@ka9q.net. Register to edit

Tags: amateur television (atv) bandwidth 70 cm arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3

What is the approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal?
  • 2.4 kHz
  • Correct Answer
    150 Hz
  • 1000 Hz
  • 15 kHz

CW uses the least bandwidth of all commonly used modes; all you really need to get across clearly is a single tone so that the receiving station can hear when it is "on" or "off".

A good rule of thumb for CW (Continuous Wave, Morse Code) is that when it asks about bandwidth it's probably the smallest value listed. There are a very few digital modes which use less bandwidth than CW but none which make that comparison which are in this question pool.

Last edited by kd7bbc. Register to edit

Tags: arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3 morse code

Go to T7D Go to T8B