or
Subelement T2
Operating Procedures
Section T2A
Station operation: choosing an operating frequency; calling another station; test transmissions; procedural signs; use of minimum power; choosing an operating frequency; band plans; calling frequencies; repeater offsets
Which of the following is a common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band?
• Plus or minus 5 Mhz
• Plus or minus 600 kHz
• Plus or minus 500 kHz
• Plus or minus 1 Mhz

This is a really important one to know because most amateur radio operators (particularly technician class licensees) operate most on the 2 meter band. There are three modes of operation that handheld radios generally have relative to frequency offset: Positive offset, Negative offset, and Simplex.

Positive offset means that when you transmit you will transmit at a frequency that is above the one you are listening on (and the repeater listens on that frequency and retransmits on the one you listen to). Negative offset means that you will use the frequency below the one you're listening on. Simplex means you will listen and transmit on the same frequency.

The frequencies used are not arbitrary; there are conventions. Generally in the 2 meter band the convention is +/- 600 kHz. Therefore if you are listening to 147.340 MHz and you transmit with a positive offset you will transmit 600 kHz (.6 MHz) above the frequency on 147.940 MHz. Similarly when listening to 146.620 MHz and transmitting with a negative offset you would transmit on 146.020 MHz.

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Tags: repeater band plan 2 meter arrl chapter 6 arrl module 15

What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 2 meter band?
• 146.520 MHz
• 145.000 MHz
• 432.100 MHz
• 446.000 MHz

See the AARL Band Plan for 2m. Note that 146.520MHz is the "National Simplex Calling Frequency" and there is another frequency referred to as simply the "National Calling Frequency". Don't get those two confused. The exam wants the simplex calling frequency.

Simplex means that you're transmitting and receiving on the same frequency, so by calling on the simplex frequency you're indicating that you're expecting a response on the same frequency.

Note that the band plan is not determined by the FCC so you won't see it in the Part 97 regulations.

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Tags: arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band?
• Plus or minus 5 Mhz
• Plus or minus 600 kHz
• Plus or minus 500 kHz
• Plus or minus 1 Mhz

When using a repeater, duplex mode is used. Duplex uses two frequencies. One to listen (receive) on and the other to talk (transmit) on. The offset refers to how far apart these two frequencies are. The one you dial into your radio is the listen frequency; the offset frequency is the transmit one.

On 70 cm, typically 5 MHz is used, while 600 KHz is used on the 2 M band

For these two bands, just remember Higher Frequency, Higher Offset.

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Tags: 70 cm repeater band plan arrl chapter 6 arrl module 15

What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station's call sign?
• Say "break, break," then say the station's call sign
• Say the station's call sign, then identify with your call sign
• Say "CQ" three times, then the other station's call sign
• Wait for the station to call CQ, then answer it

While this is not a hard rule, it's generally considered polite to identify yourself when beginning a conversation on Ham Radio. The easiest way to do that is to indicate who you want to talk to and then say who you are.

For example: "NV7V, this is KD7BBC". Remember that whether or not you choose to identify yourself in the initial transmission you need to identify before you finish your communication, so if you don't identify yourself when calling and they don't respond you will need to identify yourself before you turn your radio off, change frequencies, or before 10 minutes have passed. Thus it's generally better to just identify when you call.

CQ is generally not used for repeater operation since there is no need for a long call; you can simply say "This is requesting a contact" or something similar. In most areas the term "break" is used to indicate emergency traffic, but even in other areas it is not necessary to make a call.

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Tags: best practices operating procedures call signs arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

How should you respond to a station calling CQ?
• Transmit "CQ" followed by the other station's call sign
• Transmit your call sign followed by the other station's call sign
• Transmit the other station's call sign followed by your call sign
• Transmit a signal report followed by your call sign

Common convention in voice when someone calls your callsign is to respond with "{calling station's call}, this is {your call}". This indicates who you are talking to, and then who you are. This makes it clear to any listening who you are responding to and who you are.

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Tags: best practices cq call signs operating procedures arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

Which of the following is required when making on-the-air test transmissions?
• Identify the transmitting station
• Conduct tests only between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. local time
• Notify the FCC of the transmissions
• All of these choices are correct

Remember, any time a signal leaves your station, even if you're just testing something, you need to provide your call-sign. Usually this is done with "{your call sign here} testing, testing, testing.". This makes the intent of your communication clear, and you may even find that you get helpful feedback from another ham who might be listening.

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Tags: operating rules operating procedures arrl chapter 8 arrl module 19

What is meant by "repeater offset?"
• The difference between a repeater's transmit frequency and its receive frequency
• The repeater has a time delay to prevent interference
• The repeater station identification is done on a separate frequency
• The number of simultaneous transmit frequencies used by a repeater

A repeater is a ham radio station with Automatic Control that listens on one frequency (the receive frequency) and retransmits anything it receives on another frequency (the transmit frequency). The difference (distance) between those two frequencies is commonly referred to as the repeater offset. Commonly used bands have conventions for what this offset should be, and most commonly the offset is specified as simply positive ($+$) or negative ($-$).

On 2 meters the normal offset is $600$ kHz (that's another test question). 70 cm uses $5$ MHz (that's another). So, if you have a 2 meter repeater on $147.34$ MHz with a positive ($+$) offset you will listen to the repeater on its transmit frequency of $147.34$ MHz and transmit to the repeater on its receive frequency of $147.94$ MHz ($147.34$ MHz $+$ $600$ KHz).

Similarly, a $146.62$ repeater with a negative ($-$) offset you will listen to the repeater on its transmit frequency of $146.62$ and transmit to the repeater on its receive frequency of $146.02$ ($146.62$ MHz - $600$ KHz).

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Tags: repeater definitions arrl chapter 6 arrl module 15

What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?
• Call on the quarter hour
• A new antenna is being tested (no station should answer)
• Only the called station should transmit
• Calling any station

Saying the letters "CQ" on the air is an indication that you're trying to call any station who might be listening. If you're doing this on the lower HF bands, you would say "CQ, CQ, CQ" followed by your callsign, and repeat this a few times to give other stations a chance to find and tune into your signal. If you're talking on VHF, UHF, or on a repeater, you can simply say "CQ", followed by saying your call-sign once. Example: "CQ, this is KA1AAA". Odds are good that someone will hear your call and want to chat. Just remember "seek you", as in "calling for anyone listening".

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Tags: cq arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What brief statement indicates that you are listening on a repeater and looking for a contact?
• The words “Hello test” followed by your call sign
• The repeater call sign followed by your call sign
• The letters “QSY” followed by your call sign

Often you may want to indicate that you are listening on a repeater and available to talk to without requesting specifically that you would like someone to contact you. In these cases it is common to simply say your call sign, sometimes followed by "listening" or "monitoring" or even "mobile" or "mobile and monitoring". The specific phrases used tend to vary by area, but in all cases it is just a way to let anyone else on frequency know that you are around in case someone may want to talk to you.

Even in cases where you do want to make a contact it is common when using a repeater to say "KD7BBC, requesting contact" or something similar rather than specifically calling "CQ", simply because repeater operation is generally pretty reliable, unlike HF/shortwave operation in which it is often difficult to know what stations may be able to hear you or how far away they may be. Repeater operation tends to be a lot less formal in general than HF operation.

QSY is a Q code meaning that you are changing frequency or asking if you should change frequency.

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Tags: cq call signs operating procedures arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC?
• A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band
• A mandated list of operating schedules
• A list of scheduled net frequencies
• A plan devised by a club to indicate frequency band usage

A band plan indicates, according to the local needs, what modes of operations (voice, packet, etc.) are used on what frequencies. Some restriction are dictated by the FCC but not all. For example, the frequencies used for satellite communications and repeater use are determined by the FCC for all areas of the United States.

On the other hand, the frequencies that are used for packet radio are determined by the ARRL representative in the local area (State). You may also hear some of the band plan frequencies referred to as "gentleman agreements" indicating that we need to follow the documented plan or else risk the ire of those using it for the intended purpose.

As an example, the band plan for those operating in Utah is shown at the Utah VHF Society website. This site also provides excellent information of what is mandated by law and what is determined locally.

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What term describes an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency?
• Full duplex
• Diplex
• Simplex
• Multiplex

Simplex communication refers to the configuration such that only one person can communicate at a time. When a station is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency, the operator can either send or receive, but not both. For amateur radio, simplex communication means that a single frequency is used for both transmitting and receiving.

Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency is the simplest mode of communication, thus the term Simplex.

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Tags: operating procedures radio operation definitions arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14

Which of the following is a guideline when choosing an operating frequency for calling CQ?
• Listen first to be sure that no one else is using the frequency
• Ask if the frequency is in use
• Make sure you are in your assigned band
• All of these choices are correct

There is no better way to label yourself a "n00b" (or convince everyone you are a jerk) than to start transmitting and calling "CQ" over the top of their existing conversation.

This is particularly applicable when working HF modes. Calling CQ on HF could easily take 30-45 seconds, since you want to make sure you transmit long enough for people scanning for signals to find yours and respond.

First: Listen. If it seems clear, then transmit to ask if it's really clear. They may just be waiting for someone to get back to their rig. And, at all times, make sure you're transmitting in-band and not giving all of us hams a bad name with other services.

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Tags: arrl chapter 6 arrl module 14