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Subelement T1
FCC Rules, descriptions and definitions for the Amateur Radio Service, operator and station license responsibilities
Section T1B
Authorized frequencies: frequency allocations; ITU regions; emission modes; restricted sub-bands; spectrum sharing; transmissions near band edges
What is the ITU?
  • An agency of the United States Department of Telecommunications Management
  • Correct Answer
    A United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues
  • An independent frequency coordination agency
  • A department of the FCC

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an agency of the United Nations which regulates information and communication technology issues. It is also the global focal point for governments and the private sector in regards to developing networks and services.

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Tags: itu arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Why are the frequency assignments for some U.S. Territories different from those in the 50 U.S. States?
  • Correct Answer
    Some U. S. Territories are located in ITU regions other than region 2
  • Territorial governments are allowed to select their own frequency allocations
  • Territorial frequency allocations must also include those of adjacent countries
  • Any territory that was in existence before the ratification of the Communications Act of 1934 is exempt from FCC frequency regulations

Since radio frequency energy doesn't simply stop at borders, the use of certain frequencies is governed by what they're being used for in a particular region/territory/location.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) divides the world into three regions to manage the global radio spectrum. Each region has its own set of frequency allocations.

Region 1 comprises Europe, Africa, the Middle East west of the Persian Gulf including Iraq, the former Soviet Union and Mongolia.

Region 2 covers the Americas, Greenland and some of the eastern Pacific Islands.

Region 3 contains most of non-former-Soviet-Union Asia, east of and including Iran, and most of Oceania.

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Tags: arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Which frequency is within the 6 meter band?
  • 49.00 MHz
  • Correct Answer
    52.525 MHz
  • 28.50 MHz
  • 222.15 MHz

As an aid, convert the wavelength to frequency:

\begin{align} f_\text{ (MHz)} = \frac{300}{\lambda _\text{ (meters)}} \end{align}

So in this case: \begin{align} f_\text{ (MHz)} &= \frac{300}{6 \text{ m}} \approx 50 \text{ MHz} \end{align}

52.525 MHz is the only frequency in the 6 meter band.


Note:
The distractor answer 49 MHz is even closer to 6 meters in length, however, is outside of the US amateur 6 meter frequency allocation, which is the range 50.0 MHz - 54.0 MHz. The sub-band 50.0 MHz to 50.1 MHz is restricted to CW (Continuous Wave) only.

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Tags: frequencies 6 meter arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Which amateur band are you using when your station is transmitting on 146.52 MHz?
  • Correct Answer
    2 meter band
  • 20 meter band
  • 14 meter band
  • 6 meter band

As an aid, you can convert the frequency (\(f\)) to wavelength in meters (\(\lambda\)) :

\begin{align} \lambda_\text{ (m)} = \frac{300}{f_\text{(MHz)}} \end{align}

(300 is approximately the number of Mm/sec light travels in a vacuum.) So in this case: \begin{align} \lambda_\text{ (m)} &= \frac{300}{146.52 \text{ MHz}} = 2.05 \text{ m} \approx 2 \text{ m} \end{align}

144-148Mhz is the frequency range allocated to ham radio operators in the 2 meter band, with 144.0-144.1 being allocated for CW mode only.

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Tags: frequencies 2 meter arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Which 70 cm frequency is authorized to a Technician Class license holder operating in ITU Region 2?
  • 53.350 MHz
  • 146.520 MHz
  • Correct Answer
    443.350 MHz
  • 222.520 MHz

300 / frequency = wavelength in meters. 300 / 443.35 is around .70 (this question is easy to spot if you remember the formula, because 443.35 is the only answer that would give you a value less than 1m). The frequencies allocated to amateur radio in the 70cm band are 420-450Mhz.

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Tags: frequencies 70 cm arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Which 23 cm frequency is authorized to a Technician Class licensee?
  • 2315 MHz
  • Correct Answer
    1296 MHz
  • 3390 MHz
  • 146.52 MHz

One common thread in most frequency related questions on the technician exam is that only one of the answers is even in the given band.

300 / frequency = wavelength in meters. 300 / 1296 = 0.23, or 23cm.

You are allowed a calculator on the exam.

The frequencies 1240-1300MHz are allocated to amateur radio operators in the 23cm band.

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Tags: frequencies 23 cm arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

What amateur band are you using if you are transmitting on 223.50 MHz?
  • 15 meter band
  • 10 meter band
  • 2 meter band
  • Correct Answer
    1.25 meter band

We have an equation:

Speed of light (c) = wavelength (lambda) * freq. (f) -> lambda = c / f = (3*10^8) / (223.50 * 10^6) = 300/223.50 = 1.34 m

Normally when the result of the 300 / frequency equation lands over a band, it's considered outside that band. In this case, 1.34 is over 1.25, but it is the closest available answer. You must simply know that the 1.25 meter band is significant.

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Tags: frequencies 1.25 meter arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Which of the following is a result of the fact that the amateur service is secondary in some portions of the 70 cm band?
  • Correct Answer
    U.S. amateurs may find non-amateur stations in the bands, and must avoid interfering with them
  • U.S. amateurs must give foreign amateur stations priority in those portions
  • International communications are not permitted on 70 cm
  • Digital transmissions are not permitted on 70 cm

Secondary means that while amateur radio is allowed to use that band, amateurs are not considered the primary user. Therefore amateurs must give priority access to the primary users by not interfering with them.

The answers involving foreign amateur stations are not correct, they are still amateur radio operators, so they aren't protected by this rule. The only proscription on talking to foreign amateur stations is when their country does not allow communications with our country - there aren't many of those, but there are a few.

In the US, digital transmissions are allowed on the entire 70 cm band, so this choice is also not correct.

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Tags: arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be exactly at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band?
  • To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display
  • So that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond the band edge
  • To allow for transmitter frequency drift
  • Correct Answer
    All of these choices are correct

All of the choices are correct. Here is each one explained:

  1. The frequency you set on a transmitter is actually the carrier frequency which is either at the center of the total bandwidth that you're using (for FM or non-SSB) or at the top or bottom of the bandwidth (for SSB). When you transmit on a frequency, you will actually use a little bit of bandwidth above and/or below that frequency (referred to as deviation) even with a properly calibrated transmitter!

  2. Not all transmitters are calibrated perfectly, and so if you set your transmitter exactly on a specific frequency, say the bottom edge of the amateur portion of the band even when using upper sideband (USB), you may actually be transmitting illegally out of band, due to calibration error.

  3. Some transmitters may drift a little bit off frequency during transmission as well (due to temperature changes as the radio gets warmer etc).

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Which of the bands above 30 MHz that are available to Technician Class operators have mode-restricted sub-bands?
  • The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 70 cm bands
  • The 2 meter and 13 cm bands
  • Correct Answer
    The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 1.25 meter bands
  • The 2 meter and 70 cm bands

On 6 meters, 50.0 - 50.1MHz is allocated to CW mode only. (Morse code)

On 2 meters, 144.0 - 144.1MHz is allocated to CW mode only.

On 1.25 meters, 219.0-220.0 may be used only for Fixed digital message forwarding systems.

Dedicating a small portion of the band, a 100 khz wide sub-band, helps enable the reception of low power signals, such as EME (Earth-Moon-Earth) and propagation beacons, by protecting them from higher bandwidth modes like SSB/FM phone.

Similarly, the dedicated space on 1.25 meters, helps enable the operation of automatically controlled digital message forwarding systems. Reserving that piece of bandwidth from other operations helps prevent interference from other operators, as well as prevents other communications from being interfered with by automatically controlled stations.

For more information, ARRL has published a chart of ham radio bands [PDF].

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Tags: mode-restricted 6 meter 2 meter 1.25 meter arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

What emission modes are permitted in the mode-restricted sub-bands at 50.0 to 50.1 MHz and 144.0 to 144.1 MHz?
  • Correct Answer
    CW only
  • CW and RTTY
  • SSB only
  • CW and SSB

On 6 meters, 50.0 - 50.1MHz is allocated to CW mode only. (Morse code)

On 2 meters, 144.0 - 144.1MHz is allocated to CW mode only.

Dedicating a small portion of the band, a 100 khz wide sub-band, helps enable the reception of low power signals, such as EME (Earth-Moon-Earth) and propagation beacons, by protecting them from higher bandwidth modes like SSB/FM phone.

For more information, ARRL has published a chart of ham radio bands.

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Tags: morse code 2 meter 6 meter mode-restricted arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Why are frequency assignments for U.S. stations operating maritime mobile not the same everywhere in the world?
  • Amateur maritime mobile stations in international waters must conform to the frequency assignments of the country nearest to their vessel
  • Correct Answer
    Amateur frequency assignments can vary among the three ITU regions
  • Frequency assignments are determined by the captain of the vessel
  • Amateur frequency assignments are different in each of the 90 ITU zones

When U.S. stations aboard ships sail around the world, they pass through various ITU regions. It's the regions that determine what frequencies are allowed.

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Tags: arrl chapter 7 arrl module 15

Which emission may be used between 219 and 220 MHz?
  • Spread spectrum
  • Correct Answer
    Data
  • SSB voice
  • Fast-scan television

I don't know any really good tricks for remembering these, except to point out that whenever there is a part of the band that is reserved for Data it is generally the lowest part, and so it makes sense that the range at the bottom of the 220 MHz range would be for data. In point of fact, all non-data frequencies allowed to ham operators in the 1.25 meter band (222 MHz) are from 222.0 to 225.0 MHz, and that block allows phone and image.

219 to 220MHz is for fixed digital message forwarding systems only.

See the ARRL Frequency Chart for a handy one-page reference to band privileges.

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