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Subelement E1
COMMISSION'S RULES
Section E1B
Station restrictions and special operations: restrictions on station location; general operating restrictions, spurious emissions, control operator reimbursement; antenna structure restrictions; RACES operations; national quiet zone
Which of the following constitutes a spurious emission?
  • An amateur station transmission made at random without the proper call sign identification
  • A signal transmitted to prevent its detection by any station other than the intended recipient
  • Any transmitted signal that unintentionally interferes with another licensed radio station
  • An emission outside its necessary bandwidth that can be reduced or eliminated without affecting the information transmitted

Spurious is defined as "Not being what it purports to be; false or fake"

Spurious emissions are "false" emissions that accompany legitimate emissions. Usually they are caused by a poorly calibrated or faulty transmitter. On a spectrum analyzer they would show up as being spikes of RF energy sometimes adjacent to the real signal and sometimes at random intervals usually close by.

These emissions are "spurious" or "false" because they are not necessary to receive the information and they are outside the normal bandwidth needed for the signal.

Last edited by kd7bbc. Register to edit

Tags: noise and interference bandwidth

Which of the following factors might cause the physical location of an amateur station apparatus or antenna structure to be restricted?
  • The location is near an area of political conflict
  • The location is of geographical or horticultural importance
  • The location is in an ITU Zone designated for coordination with one or more foreign governments
  • The location is of environmental importance or significant in American history, architecture, or culture

Environmental or historical significance may limit land use in some cases and this includes where someone can install an antenna so the FCC regulates the physical location where the antenna can be built.

Don't let the word horticultural trip you up!

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Within what distance must an amateur station protect an FCC monitoring facility from harmful interference?
  • 1 mile
  • 3 miles
  • 10 miles
  • 30 miles

§ 97.13 Restrictions on station location.


(b) A station within 1600 m (1 mile) of an FCC monitoring facility must protect that facility from harmful interference. Failure to do so could result in imposition of operating restrictions upon the amateur station by a District Director pursuant to § 97.121 of this part. Geographical coordinates of the facilities that require protection are listed in § 0.121(c) of this chapter.

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What must be done before placing an amateur station within an officially designated wilderness area or wildlife preserve, or an area listed in the National Register of Historical Places?
  • A proposal must be submitted to the National Park Service
  • A letter of intent must be filed with the National Audubon Society
  • An Environmental Assessment must be submitted to the FCC
  • A form FSD-15 must be submitted to the Department of the Interior

You only need to work with the FCC. Go to their website www.fcc.gov and search for "Environmental Assessment" and the forms will be listed.

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What is the National Radio Quiet Zone?
  • An area in Puerto Rico surrounding the Arecibo Radio Telescope
  • An area in New Mexico surrounding the White Sands Test Area
  • An area surrounding the National Radio Astronomy Observatory
  • An area in Florida surrounding Cape Canaveral

Private land mobile radio services, 47 C.F.R. § 97.3 (2010):

(32) National Radio Quiet Zone. The area in Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia Bounded by 39°15′ N on the north, 78°30′ W on the east, 37°30′ N on the south and 80°30′ W on the west.

reference:

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5.pdf

page 589

From Wikipedia:

****The United States National Radio Quiet Zone is a large area of land surrounding the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) at Green Bank, West Virginia, and especially the large Green Bank Telescope radio telescope. The Radio Quiet Zone is a rectangle of land approximately 13,000 square miles (34,000 km2) in size that straddles the border area of Virginia and West Virginia. It includes all land with latitudes between 37.5°N and 39.25°N and longitudes between 78.5°W and 80.5°W. This area was chosen because it has a hilly topography that screens out most incoming radio signals, allowing the Green Bank telescopes to receive signals that are otherwise too low in power to be heard over the normal radio background in North America.

![](http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/National_Radio_Qu iet_Zone.svg/200px-National_Radio_Quiet_Zone.svg.png)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_National_Radio_Quiet_Zone

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Which of the following additional rules apply if you are installing an amateur station antenna at a site at or near a public use airport?
  • You may have to notify the Federal Aviation Administration and register it with the FCC as required by Part 17 of FCC rules
  • No special rules apply if your antenna structure will be less than 300 feet in height
  • You must file an Environmental Impact Statement with the EPA before construction begins
  • You must obtain a construction permit from the airport zoning authority

This is an overlapping jurisdiction question. The FAA regulates Airspace that might endanger aircraft so their regulations need to be consulted and it will then need to registered with the FCC as required by part 17.

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What is the highest modulation index permitted at the highest modulation frequency for angle modulation below 29.0 MHz?
  • 0.5
  • 1.0
  • 2.0
  • 3.0

Any modulation index greater than 1.0 will result in bandwidths that are wider than necessary for good amateur practices.

§ 97.307 Emission standards. (a) No amateur station transmission shall occupy more bandwidth than necessary for the information rate and emission type being transmitted, in accordance with good amateur practice. (b) Emissions resulting from modulation must be confined to the band or segment available to the control operator. Emissions outside the necessary bandwidth must not cause splatter or keyclick interference to operations on adjacent frequencies.

The modulation index is equal to the peak deviation divided by the modulation rate (frequency).

For example: A 28.4 MHz maximum audio frequency can't have more than 28.4 MHz of peak deviation in order to have a mode index of 1. (28.4/28.4 = 1)

For further reading: [Wikipedia on modulation indexes][1] [1]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modulation_index

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What limitations may the FCC place on an amateur station if its signal causes interference to domestic broadcast reception, assuming that the receivers involved are of good engineering design?
  • The amateur station must cease operation
  • The amateur station must cease operation on all frequencies below 30 MHz
  • The amateur station must cease operation on all frequencies above 30 MHz
  • The amateur station must avoid transmitting during certain hours on frequencies that cause the interference

The FCC may impose limited quiet periods on the amateur station on those frequencies involved. Conversely the amateur station must be operating properly without violating any rules especially regarding spurious emissions.

Hint:. Long question, long answer

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Which amateur stations may be operated under RACES rules?
  • Only those club stations licensed to Amateur Extra class operators
  • Any FCC-licensed amateur station except a Technician class
  • Any FCC-licensed amateur station certified by the responsible civil defense organization for the area served
  • Any FCC-licensed amateur station participating in the Military Auxiliary Radio System (MARS)

You must first register with the local civil defense organization and then at that point you can register your amateur radio station with RACES. Each operator must follow the operator privileges granted by the license.

§ 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency service.


(a) No station may transmit in RACES unless it is an FCC-licensed primary, club, or military recreation station and it is certified by a civil defense organization as registered with that organization, or it is an FCC-licensed RACES station. No person may be the control operator of a RACES station, or may be the control operator of an amateur station transmitting in RACES unless that person holds a FCC issued amateur operator license and is certified by a civil defense organization as enrolled in that organization.

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What frequencies are authorized to an amateur station operating under RACES rules?
  • All amateur service frequencies authorized to the control operator
  • Specific segments in the amateur service MF, HF, VHF and UHF bands
  • Specific local government channels
  • Military Auxiliary Radio System (MARS) channels

The frequencies that may be used are determined by the control operator's license. Normally RACES stations will communicate with other RACES stations but other stations may be authorized by a responsible civil defense authority.

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What is the permitted mean power of any spurious emission relative to the mean power of the fundamental emission from a station transmitter or external RF amplifier installed after January 1, 2003 and transmitting on a frequency below 30 MHZ?
  • At least 43 dB below
  • At least 53 dB below
  • At least 63 dB below
  • At least 73 dB below

§ 97.307 Emission standards.


(d) For transmitters installed after January 1, 2003, the mean power of any spurious emission from a station transmitter or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a frequency below 30 MHz must be at least 43 dB below the mean power of the fundamental emission.

You could remember this as 43 dB in 2003 or 20+(2)0+3

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