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Subelement E1
COMMISSION'S RULES
Section E1C
Definitions and restrictions pertaining to local, automatic and remote control operation; control operator responsibilities for remote and automatically controlled stations; IARP and CEPT licenses; third party communications over automatically controlled stations
What is a remotely controlled station?
  • A station operated away from its regular home location
  • A station controlled by someone other than the licensee
  • A station operating under automatic control
  • A station controlled indirectly through a control link

FCC 97.3(a)(38) Remote control. The use of a control operator who indirectly manipulates the operating adjustments in the station through a control link to achieve compliance with the FCC Rules.

Regarding the distractors, a station operated away from its home location is still being operated locally. When it's being controlled by someone other than the licensee that someone is still the control operator. Automatic control means that the station is controlled automatically -- with no control operator at the control point, as in the case of a repeater.

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What is meant by automatic control of a station?
  • The use of devices and procedures for control so that the control operator does not have to be present at a control point
  • A station operating with its output power controlled automatically
  • Remotely controlling a station's antenna pattern through a directional control link
  • The use of a control link between a control point and a locally controlled station

Note that automatic control is not the same as remote control. With remote control, the control point (the point from which the station is controlled) is located remotely from the station and controls the station over a control link.

Automatic control is the only form of control of a station that allows operation when the control operator is not at a control point. The most common example of automatic control is a repeater. There is still a control operator, but they have configured the station for Automatic Control and it controls itself without them needing to be present at a control point. This is generally done using special devices or procedures allowing the station to control itself.

FCC 97(a) (6) Automatic control. The use of devices and procedures for control of a station when it is transmitting so that compliance with the FCC Rules is achieved without the control operator being present at a control point.

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How do the control operator responsibilities of a station under automatic control differ from one under local control?
  • Under local control there is no control operator
  • Under automatic control the control operator is not required to be present at the control point
  • Under automatic control there is no control operator
  • Under local control a control operator is not required to be present at a control point

There is always a control operator when an amateur radio station is transmitting. With local control, the control operator is physically at the same location as the station and is controlling it from the control point there.

Automatic control is when the control operator uses devices and/or procedures to configure the station so that it can operate without an active control operator. There is still a control operator, but he or she is not present at the control point in all cases during station operation.

A common example of automatic control is a repeater.

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What is meant by IARP?
  • An international amateur radio permit that allows U.S. amateurs to operate in certain countries of the Americas
  • The internal amateur radio practices policy of the FCC
  • An indication of increased antenna reflected power
  • A forecast of intermittent aurora radio propagation

International Amateur Radio Permit (IARP) is for operation in certain countries of the Americas (see below for list) and allows US amateur radio operators to operate without seeking a special license or permit to operate from that country. For a US citizen to operate an amateur station in a CITEL country, an IARP is necessary and may be issued by a member-society of the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU)--for the US, the American Radio Relay League (ARRL). The permit lists its authority in four different languages.

See http://www.arrl.org/iarp

Participating IARP Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, El Salvador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States of America, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

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When may an automatically controlled station originate third party communications?
  • Never
  • Only when transmitting RTTY or data emissions
  • When agreed upon by the sending or receiving station
  • When approved by the National Telecommunication and Information Administration

The rule that confuses people on this one is: An automatically controlled station may retransmit 3rd party communications only if the emissions are RTTY (radio teletype) or data (such as packet).

HOWEVER: An automatically controlled station can never originate the third party communications.

The key word here is originate.

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Which of the following statements concerning remotely controlled amateur stations is true?
  • Only Extra Class operators may be the control operator of a remote station
  • A control operator need not be present at the control point
  • A control operator must be present at the control point
  • Repeater and auxiliary stations may not be remotely controlled

Except in the case of an automatically controlled station, all Amateur Radio stations must have a control operator at the control point when transmitting.

With a remote control station you might think that this is not true, but in actuality the place from which you remotely control the station is the control point.

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What is meant by local control?
  • Controlling a station through a local auxiliary link
  • Automatically manipulating local station controls
  • Direct manipulation of the transmitter by a control operator
  • Controlling a repeater using a portable handheld transceiver

There are several types of control permitted for an Amateur Station. Local control is the simplest and most readily understood. It is simply control of a station directly, at the controls of that station, by a control operator.

Other types of control (for comparison, not for the answer to this question) include Automatic Control (such as a repeater) and Remote Control (such as controlling a station through an auxiliary link or controlling a repeater using a handheld.)

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What is the maximum permissible duration of a remotely controlled station's transmissions if its control link malfunctions?
  • 30 seconds
  • 3 minutes
  • 5 minutes
  • 10 minutes

FCC 97.213(b)) Provisions are incorporated to limit transmission by the station to a period of no more than 3 minutes in the event of malfunction in the control link.

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Which of these ranges of frequencies is available for an automatically controlled repeater operating below 30 MHz?
  • 18.110 MHz - 18.168 MHz
  • 24.940 MHz - 24.990 MHz
  • 10.100 MHz - 10.150 MHz
  • 29.500 MHz - 29.700 MHz

A repeater may receive and retransmit only on the 10 m and shorter wavelength frequency bands except the following segments.

  • 28.0–29.5 MHz
  • 50.0–51.0 MHz
  • 144.0–144.5 MHz
  • 145.5–146.0 MHz
  • 222.00–222.15 MHz
  • 431.0–433.0 MHz
  • 435.0–438.0 MHz

29.500 MHz - 29.700 is the only answer that is Directly below 30MHz

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What types of amateur stations may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur stations?
  • Only beacon, repeater or space stations
  • Only auxiliary, repeater or space stations
  • Only earth stations, repeater stations or model craft
  • Only auxiliary, beacon or space stations

FCC 97.113(f) No amateur station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other amateur station.

An easy way to remember this is to focus on "automatically retransmit signals", or ARS; which happens to follow the order for (A)uxiliary, (R)epeater, or (S)pace stations.

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Which of the following operating arrangements allows an FCC-licensed U.S. citizen to operate in many European countries, and alien amateurs from many European countries to operate in the U.S.?
  • CEPT agreement
  • IARP agreement
  • ITU reciprocal license
  • All of these choices are correct

CEPT - European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations. C "European" PT

Hint: Usually not allowed, but they make exCEPTions.

Fun Fact, from Wikipedia:

The acronym comes from the French version of its name:

Conférence Européenne des administrations des Postes et des Télécommunications.

  • KM4HOC

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What types of communications may be transmitted to amateur stations in foreign countries?
  • Business-related messages for non-profit organizations
  • Messages intended for connection to users of the maritime satellite service
  • Communications incidental to the purpose of the amateur service and remarks of a personal nature
  • All of these choices are correct

Business-related messages are never allowed to be sent over amateur radio, even if it's for a non-profit organization.

A maritime satellite service would most likely be a service for connecting to seafaring vessels -- a web search turned up nothing useful -- which would not be part of the amateur service.

Communications incidental to the purpose of the amateur service and remarks of a personal nature are always welcome on amateur radio, so this should generally be the most obvious choice -- good thing it's the correct one.

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Which of the following is required in order to operate in accordance with CEPT rules in foreign countries where permitted?
  • You must identify in the official language of the country in which you are operating
  • The U.S. embassy must approve of your operation
  • You must bring a copy of FCC Public Notice DA 11-221
  • You must append "/CEPT" to your call sign

http://www.arrl.org/files/file/Regulatory/DA-11-221A1.pdf

Therein: While operating an amateur station in a CEPT country, the person must have in his or her possession a copy of this Public Notice DA-11-221, proof of U.S. citizenship, and evidence of the FCC license grant. These documents must be shown to proper authorities upon request.

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